Arjuna

35 mins read

Terminalia arjuna, frequently called arjuna, comes from the family of Combretaceae. Its bark preparation is being utilized in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, high blood pressure, heart disease, and dyslipidemia, based upon the observations of ancient doctors for centuries.It is an ayurvedic remedy that has been pointed out because vedic duration in lots of ancient Indian medical texts including Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, and Astang Hridayam. [1]

History

According to the Mahabharata – one of the most respected books of Indian mythology – Arjuna was one of five siblings and a central character in this ancient Indian legendary. Kid of the god Indra and renowned for his talent in archery, he was understood for his steadfastness and single mindedness in pursuing his goals. His commitment to Lord Krishna earned him the magnificent understanding of the Bhagavad-Gita and the character of Arjuna signifies pureness, stability, commitment and valour. It is stated that the hero of this legendary was named after the Terminalia Arjuna tree because of its protective effects. The Arjuna herb was known for its function in safeguarding vigor and was nicknamed “Guardian of the Heart”, displaying similar attributes to the hero of the Indian legend. In Sanskrit the word Arjuna suggests “shining”, alluding to the silvery shimmering quality of the external bark of the tree. Once a year this bark peels away to expose the inner red recovery bark, making it available for harvest without harm to the tree. [2]

Description

Arjuna grows to about 20– 25 metres high; generally has actually an upheld trunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches drop downwards. It has oval, conical leaves which are green on the top and brown listed below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided into 5 wings, appears between September and November. The tree does not struggle with any significant diseases or bugs, but it is susceptible to Phyllactinia terminale and rot due to polystictus affinis.

Circulation and environment

The arjuna is seen throughout the Indian Subcontinent, and usually discovered growing on river banks or near dry river beds in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha and south and main India, along with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It has likewise been planted in Malaysia, Indonesia and Kenya. [3]

Category

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Myrtales
  • Household: Combretaceae
  • Genus: Terminalia
  • Types: T. arjuna
  • Zoological name: Terminalia arjuna

Other names: Arjuna, Koha, Kahu, Arjan, White Marudah, White Murdh, Arjuna Myrobalan, Orjun, Yerra maddi, Sadada, Sadaru and much more. [4]

Qualities of the Arjuna Tree

Arjuna, also called arjun, is a stunning, deciduous tree that can reach heights as much as 100 feet and has actually been valued for its wood and healing homes for generations. It grows throughout the wet, marshy, sub-Himalayan areas of India and Sri Lanka, producing clusters of little white or yellow flowers amid its cone-shaped leaves. The most desired part of the tree is its red inner bark, which is respected as a tonic for the heart and is thought about comparable to hawthorn in European herbalism. The thick, white-to-pinkish-gray outer bark molts naturally once a year and is gathered when the trees are fully grown. Giving the tree time to recuperate and regrow its bark is an essential component to sustainable harvesting. Centuries back, the arjuna tree was given a name befitting its traditional role of protecting the heart, just like its mythological namesake brought perseverance, strength, and protection to his household in battle.The term “arjuna” implies “intense,” “white,” or “shining” in Sanskrit, just like the light-reflective bark of the arjuna tree.

Phytochemistry

The major constituents of T. arjuna in stem bark, root bark, fruits, leaves and seeds are well defined. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of existing substances in T. arjuna was performed according to different standard procedures. As bark was considered to be the most essential constituent from the medicinal perspective, at first reported that the bark had 34% ash material consisting totally of pure calcium carbonate. Aqueous extract of T. arjuna is reported to have 23% calcium salts and 16% tannins. Organic extracts of T. arjuna bark were likewise prepared using the consecutive approaches with a number of organic solvents such as hexane, benzene, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, methanol and ether, etc, to extract numerous phytochemical constituents. The chemical structures of readily available compounds were verified by numerous sophisticated strategies like HPLC, UPLC, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.26, 27, 55, 56 Polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, saponins, sterols and minerals are the major constituents of T. arjuna. Such amino acids like tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine and cysteine are also the main ingredients in T. arjuna. [5]

Nutrient

Five bark powder samples of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) having different origins including 2 commercial brands were examined for 8 minor (Al, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Cl, Fe) and 19 trace (As, Bachelor’s Degree, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) elements by INAA. Also concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb were determined by AAS and of Sn by ICP-MS. Arjuna bark powder is enhanced in Ca, Mg, K Cl and Fe with significant amounts of Mn and Several harmful aspects such as As, Hg and Pb were also discovered. [6]

Microscopy

Transverse area of fresh bark reveals cork made up of consistently set up numerous layers of little, tangentially lengthened cells. Below cork is a region of cortex, made up of thin-walled, basically brick-shaped parenchymatous cells containing cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. A couple of groups of sclerenchymatous pericyclic fibres are scattered in the cortex. Secondary phloem consists of phloem parenchyma composed of thin-walled, polygonal cells with wavy walls containing cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and pigmented cells. Phloem fibers, composed of sclerenchymatous cells, take place in groups and are spread in the form of patches in parenchyma. Narrow and nearly straight medullary rays are likewise present. [7]

Prospective advantages

There’s limited research study on arjunarishta, and most of it was carried out in animals. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made about its effectiveness in human beings.

High in antioxidants

Anti-oxidants are compounds that reduce the effects of extremely unsteady particles called totally free radicals. Free radical damage is connected to persistent conditions like heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Many ingredients in arjunarishta, such as T. arjuna, V. vinifera, and W. fruticosa, contain substances that work as anti-oxidants, including flavonoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and phenolic acids.In test-tube and animal studies, T. arjuna, V. vinifera, and W. fruticosa anti-oxidants have been shown to reduce the growth and spread of cancers in the stomach, liver.However, it’s unclear whether taking arjunarishta would produce comparable results, as these research studies were performed using focused extracts. It’s also unclear whether these advantages would apply to people.

May help blood glucose control

Animal research recommends that arjunarishta and its active ingredients might reduce blood glucose levels.In a mouse study, scientists discovered that both arjunarishta and T. arjuna extract lowered fasting blood sugar level levels substantially more than a control.Similarly, a study in rats with diabetes discovered that treatment with a T. arjuna extract for 15 days considerably lowered and stabilized fasting blood glucose levels.Additional research studies in mice with diabetes have likewise discovered the concoction’s ingredients to significantly minimize fasting blood sugar level levels.However, arjunarishta contains jaggery– an unrefined sugar product. As such, while most of the active ingredients may assist blood sugar level control in animal research studies, arjunarishta as a whole may be unsuitable for individuals with diabetes.Human studies on arjunarishta’s results on blood sugar management are needed prior to advising it for this function.

Other possible advantages

Arjunarishta and its ingredients have been connected with other possible advantages, including:.

May lower cancer threat. Animal and test-tube studies suggest that certain ingredients in arjunarishta might have anticancer residential or commercial properties. Still, human research studies are needed in this area.May have anti-asthmatic residential or commercial properties. Animal research recommends that some of the blend’s active ingredients may have anti-asthmatic residential or commercial properties and help reduce lung swelling. Again, human research studies are needed.May help aerobic workout performance. A study in 30 healthy young people discovered that T. arjuna, a key component in arjunarishta, improved aerobic exercise endurance. [8]

Advantages of Arjun Fruit

Removes halitosis

Halitosis is one of the most typical lifestyle issues that occur with many individuals. You would not wish to go to your work place having foul breath. Eating arjun fruit can actually enhance your mouth smell and can have advantages related to oral health. This fruit has substances that have recovery residential or commercial properties that can even aid your gum issues and bleeding from the teeth. You can in fact have arjun fruit as soon as every morning to begin your day with a fresh mouth.

Makes Bones Stronger

If you are struggling with any type of bone issues, specifically that weakens our bones, then it can be truly efficient for you to eat arjun fruit. In the aging, people might feel this bone problems growing in time. Bones of older grownups tend to become weaker and that is when you can in fact take complete benefits of arjun fruit. You can consume it raw of make a juice out of it. It might even help you with bone conditions like osteoporosis and arthritis. It might not be able to treat it but can bring down its signs.

Minimizes Teeth and Gum Issues

Oral health plays a very crucial role in determining the way of life, self-confidence and some other elements. Consuming arjun fruit can actually assist you minimize your gum problems and improve teeth health. Here are some common oral issues that could be fixed by eating arjun fruit in your diet-.

  • Bleeding from the teeth
  • Minimizes cavities
  • Tooth pain
  • Discomfort in gums
  • Bleeding gums

You can have this fruit in the form of juice, or raw. You can likewise consume arjun fruit powder and put it in the form of a paste on the area where you are facing gum or teeth issues. However, it is much better to consult a physician initially and take arjun fruit more as a remedy than a treatment.

  1. Improves Heart Rate Rhythms

It has been observed that eating arjun fruit regularly in your diet can decrease the danger of heart rhythm condition. This fruit can help to preserve regular heart rate rhythm that might decrease the danger of cardiovascular disease. You can also have arjun bark powder and blend it in a glass of water with some honey to cleanse your blood. Arjun fruit hence could be beneficial to enhance heart health as well. [9]

Extract preparation

The sun dried bark of T. arjuna was given the laboratory and powdered and extracted in water (1:8, after travelling through 80 mesh size) by boiling (4 h). The extracts were consequently infiltrated muslin fabric and the filtrate was spray dried. For preparation of water option of T. arjuna extracts, dried powder (500 mg), was liquified in distilled water and after that centrifuged (500g, 15 min). The supernatants were moved to micro-centrifuge tubes and stored (at − 20 ° C). The quantity of total soluble solids in supernatant was determined utilizing gravimetric analysis which functioned as the basis to develop T. arjuna concentrations. [10]

Technique of Preparation Of Arjunarishta

The main ingredient arjuna is cleaned and sun-dried. It is then powdered and sieved to eliminate impurities and strong particles.Separately, the fragrant herbs i.e. madhuka, dhataki and draksha are cleaned up, dried, powdered, sieved and kept aside. The powdered arjuna bark is then immersed in a particular quantity of water and permitted to soak over night. In the early morning, the decoction is then boiled and minimized to 1/4 amount and passed through a muslin cloth to eliminate pollutants. Add jaggery to the clear decoction, stir it effectively and filter to eliminate strong particles. Now, pour the preparation in a wide-mouthed vessel, include the powdered fragrant herbs to the filtrate and seal the opening of the container.Keep it aside in the fermentation space and enable it to ferment. Keep an examine the fermentation procedure. When the fermentation is done, filter the fermented liquid through a muslin fabric to remove strong particles and pollutants. The concoction is then poured in air-tight containers, saved in a cool, dry place and kept for maturation. [11]

What can I use it for?

Arjuna bark influences an increase in levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione levels. This action supplies security versus oxidative stress, with a particular affinity for heart tissue. Arjuna likewise shows a favorable inotropic action upon heart muscle, balancing any irregular contractions and promoting a healthy high blood pressure. Arjuna mediates the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis within the liver, enhancing cholesterol metabolism and likewise motivating basic hepatic cellular regrowth. Arjuna has shown anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-mutagenic activity against particular stress such as salmonella, E.coli and HIV. In addition, it has also shown the ability to recover harmed and injured skin cells, and prevent the development of tumours.

Into the heart of arjuna

Arjuna is first and foremost a cardio tonic. Arjuna is particularly indicated for all heart based conditions, reinforcing, nourishing and repairing heart and blood vessel tissue. It will affect a reduction in any swelling and blockage that might be impairing heart function but likewise support any emotional stress and stress and anxiety affecting the organ.The regenerative effect that this herb has on the liver, likewise makes it extremely rejuvenative to the liver as an organ, improving overall efficiency and metabolism, with the added capability of enhancing cholesterol metabolism. Arjuna recovery procedure with a particular focus upon broken skin and bones and damage caused by chronic viral and bacterial infection. Arjuna is specifically indicated in angina, congestive heart failure, heart arrhythmia, and hypertension. All have actually showed signs of enhancing in human scientific trials. It has also been shown to minimize human total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It decreases swelling and congestion that can harm the heart. It can be utilized to deal with psychological disruption and ‘broken heart’. It strengthens the muscles of the heart along with toning the capillaries and enhancing flexibility which helps to prevent high blood pressure. It helps to stabilize the motion of vyana vayu in the heart and manage flow. Arjuna’s affinity for the chest directs it to the lungs and to ease productive coughs with generous mucus in bronchitis and asthma. It can likewise treat haemoptysis affected by increased heat and inflammation. Arjuna improves liver function and swelling, making it highly indicated in cirrrosis. Arjuna is useful as an alterative for clearing the skin of inflammation typical in acne, acne rosacea, pruritus and urticarial.The injury healing ability of arjuna is demonstrated in post-trauma healing of scars, post-operative healing and repairing fractures. It can also be utilized internally and externally for recovery diabetic ulcers.The astringency of arjuna prevents early ejaculation and uterine bleeding. [12]

How to Take Arjuna

If arjuna’s heart-nourishing powers and variety of other benefits are calling your name, there are numerous ways to include this herb into your routine. To figure out the way that is best method for you, simply tune into any specific intentions and trust where your heart is called. And naturally, if you are dealing with a more complex health condition, we suggest working with an Ayurvedic professional for particular and customized assistance. On its own. Arjuna can be used on its own for those who choose working with a single herb. The most standard method for taking arjuna is the powder; attempt drinking it in warm water as a tea. Or try the liquid extract for a quick, practical option.In a supplement. Arjuna is included in a lot of Banyan’s supplements, including Heart Formula, Stress Ease, Women’s Natural Shift, Healthy Bones, and Sweet Ease. Topically. Arjuna is an ideal component for our relaxing and soothing natural oils and balms. It can be discovered in Mahanarayan Oil, Daily Massage Oil, and Breast Care Balm.

Is Arjuna Safe?

Arjuna is typically thought about safe in most circumstances, making it an all set ally for lots of. That stated, it’s constantly essential to approach the use of herbs with care. [13]

Dosage

What is the suggested dose of arjuna?

Based on scientific research study done on the arjuna plant up until now, the following dosages have actually been suggested.

For chest pain: 500mg of the powdered bark of the arjuna plant is recommended to be taken three times daily, together with the standard treatment for angina for about 3 months.

For heart failure: 500 mg of powdered arjuna bark can be taken 3 times per day together with the standard treatment for heart failure for about 2 weeks. [14]

Directions

  1. Arjuna bark being the main ingredient is to start with cleaned and left for drying in the sun.
  2. It is then processed to obtain the end product in a powdered form. Do keep in mind to sieve the powder once to get rid of the impurities or any solid particles.
  3. The other herbs (madhuka, dhataki and draksha) which are utilized will likewise be cleaned thoroughly and sun dried.
  4. These herbs are likewise processed to form powder. Keep all the herbs separately and sieve them when to clear the possibilities of strong impure particles.
  5. The powdered arjuna bark is then left in water for the soaking procedure for at least 24 hr.
  6. The soaked product is then boiled till the quantity is lowered to less than half. To get rid of the additional possibilities of impurities, pass it through muslin fabric.
  7. Now include jaggery or gud to the decoction and stir it appropriately.
  8. Add all the herbs and seal the container securely.
  9. Permit the decoction to ferment effectively.
  10. Once the fermentation is done, filter it once again using muslin cloth to additional purify.
  11. It is ready to utilize and can be saved in airtight containers. [15]

Arjuna bark for skin

The bark of Arjuna is used to treat different skin associated issues. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial homes that assist in eliminating skin issues.

In Ayurveda, the Arjuna tree has actually been referred to as a bonanza of medical residential or commercial properties. Arjuna tree, fruits, leaves and roots are utilized in Ayurveda for the treatment of many illness. Let us inform you that the bark of Arjuna is utilized to get rid of lots of kinds of skin related problems. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial residential or commercial properties that help in removing skin problems. In today’s post, we will inform you which skin issues are eliminated by the powder of Arjun bark–.

Dry skin

Arjun bark is an efficient medicine for those with dry skin. Its extract helps in retaining moisture in the skin. In addition to this, it increases the production of sebum in the skin. Applying a face pack made from Arjun bark on the face removes the issue of dry skin and makes the face glow.

Great Lines and Wrinkles

Using arjuna bark on the face assists in avoiding the indications of aging. It has rich anti-oxidant properties that safeguard the skin from damage brought on by complimentary radicals. Applying the bark of Arjuna on the skin tightens the skin and gets rid of the issue of great lines and wrinkles.

Itching

Arjuna bark has anti-inflammatory homes, which gets rid of the problem of swelling and inflammation on the skin. Apart from this, using arjuna bark is likewise beneficial in the problem of pimples and itching on the face. It cools the skin and gets rid of the problem of itching.

Pimples

Arjun bark face pack is also an efficient home remedy in the problem of acne. It has antimicrobial properties that remove the issue of acne and pimples on the skin. This.

Discolorations

Arjun bark face pack is extremely reliable for people who have the issue of imperfections on the face. Applying it on the face eliminates the problem of acne. Together with this, the bark of Arjuna is also beneficial to eliminate the dark areas and tanning of the face.

How to make Arjuna bark face pack

  1. To make a face pack of Arjuna bark, take the powder of the bark of this tree.
  2. Now add a spoonful of raw milk or honey to it.
  3. Now use this paste on the afflicted area of your skin.
  4. After this wash off with tidy water after 15-20 minutes [16]

Interactions with Organ Systems

Stomach

The methanolic extract of Arjuna appears to safeguard gastric tissue from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Heliobactor Pylori, which is understood to cause ulcers. [57] This protective effect has been noted against alcohol (7 day preload), Dexamethasone (10 day preload), and diclofenac sodium (single dosage) where 100-200mg/ kg of an 80% ethanolic extract provided outright defense versus ulcer development from Dexamethasone and alcohol, while 400mg/kg of a severe dose provided outright defense versus Diclofenac Sodium. [58] The favorable control in this research study, Rantidine (35mg/kg Diclofenac, 50mg/kg alcohol, 4mg/kg Dexamethasone) likewise conferred outright protection, [58] and these protective effects versus Diclofenac have actually been duplicated with a methanolic extract and believed to be associated with the anti-oxidative potential.

Ears

One study kept in mind that Arjuna extracts, particularly acetonic extraction, was able to cause death of Staphylococcus aureus germs and encompassed Escherchia Coli, Acinetobacter sp, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans; [60] the authors assumed that the results suggest that Arjuna might work against ear infections (although admittedly initial).

Liver

In separated hepatocytes (HepG2), 5-100mcg/ mL of the water extract of Arjuna has the ability to concentration dependently decrease the biomarkers of oxidation caused by TERT (pro-oxidative agent), with free radicals (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) being reduced as much as 69% and 62% respectively. [61] The reduction of antioxidant enzymes by TERT was also considerably attenuated up to 60% (SOD), 82% (Catalase), and Glutathione enzymes (62-65% for peroxidase and reductase; completely avoiding any reduction in Glutathione S-transferase). [61] These antioxidant results are thought to underlie results accomplished with 50mg/kg water extract of Arjuna for 7 days prior to CCL4 caused hepatotoxicity, where Arjuna substantially prevented the increase in GPT (dose dependent reductions up to 50mg/kg, no included advantage at 100mg/kg), stabilized ALP, and increased hepatic levels of antioxidant levels either to control levels (Catalase and Glutathione S-Transferase) or above control (SOD), a strength similar to Vitamin C at the exact same oral doses.

Kidneys

250-500mg/ kg of a hydroalcoholic extract of Arjuna bark (not an oral study, however the comparable injected into perfused kidneys) appears to decrease oxidation and concomitantly increase antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Glutathione. A preservation of anti-oxidant enzymes in action to CCL4 is observed to be of comparable effectiveness to Vitamin C and has actually noted protective results in the kidneys of Alloxan-induced diabetic rats at oral dosages of 250-500mg/ kg of the water extract.

Molecules that are found in Arjuna that have been kept in mind to put in protective impacts on kidney cells include Casuarinin, a tannin structure, with more strength than the water soluble kind of Vitamin E called Trolox.

Urinary System

In vitro, Arjuna appears to be able to reduce development rates of calcium-based kidney stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate tested) with the butanol extract being most reliable.

Testicles

One study utilizing arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats noted that 4 days pretreatment with separated Arjunolic acid can prevent oxidative testicular damange and histological modifications in response to arsenic. This study noted that, in vitro, the antioxidant potential of Arjunolic Acid peaked at a focused of 0.4 mg/mL and this appeared to correlated with an oral consumption of 20mg/kg (as 50mg/kg did not provide additional protective benefits) which the total protective advantage was near outright, and sligtly less efficient than 100mg/kg Vitamin C. [17]

Safety measures:

During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: There is no proof that Terminalia Arjuna is potentially risky during pregnancy & & breastfeeding. Please remain on the safe side and prevent utilizing it during pregnancy.

Bleeding Conditions: It might slow blood clotting and threat bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding disorders.

Surgical treatment: Terminalia may interfere with blood sugar level control and increase the danger of bleeding during surgery. So stop using it before two weeks before an arranged surgical treatment.

Storage:

2 years if sealed and save far from direct sunlight. [18]

Conclusion

The everlasting interest in medical plants has caused the discovery of new chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of arjuna. Its effectiveness as an anti-ischemic agent, a powerful antioxidant, and an antiatherogenic agent has actually been amply demonstrated in numerous speculative and clinical studies. However, major lacunae of these research studies include the absence of phytochemical standardization of the extract, bioavailability studies, and well-designed studies to evaluate its long-term toxicity impacts. Its specific role in primary/secondary coronary prevention needs to be examined. In addition to this, studies to search for the impact of arjuna on CYP450 enzymes and its interactions with other drugs like statin, aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and β-blocker require to be designed. Increasing the awareness concerning its medical use can provide an instructions to the doctors to react to the challenges in treating heart diseases. [19]

Referrals

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220499/
  2. https://www.indigo-herbs.co.uk/natural-health-guide/benefits/arjuna
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_arjuna
  4. http://www.ecoindia.com/flora/trees/arjun-tree.html
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198828/
  6. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320634680_INAA_of_essential_micronutrients_in_Terminalia_arjuna_bark_powder_a_versatile_heart_tonic
  7. https://www.pharmacy180.com/article/arjuna-317/
  8. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/arjunarishta
  9. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110863013000888
  10. https://www.onlymyhealth.com/arjun-fruit-benefits-1652761281
  11. https://www.netmeds.com/health-library/post/arjunarishta-benefits-uses-ingredients-method-dosage-and-side-effects
  12. https://www.herbalreality.com/herb/arjuna/
  13. https://www.banyanbotanicals.com/info/plants/ayurvedic-herbs/arjuna-benefits/
  14. https://aiwo.com/blogs/blog/terminalia-arjuna-benefits-sources-and-side-effects
  15. https://wellversed.in/blogs/articles/what-is-arjunarishta-all-you-need-to-know
  16. https://hindustannewshub.com/beauty-tips/these-5-skin-problems-are-removed-by-the-bark-of-arjuna-know-how-to-make-its-face-pack/
  17. https://examine.com/supplements/terminalia-arjuna/research
  18. https://chiltanpure.com/product/arjuna-powder/
  19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S222541101630236X
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