Table of Contents
Daphne species are shrubs, with upright or prostrate stems. Upright species may grow to 1.5 m (5 feet). Their leaves are undivided, mainly set up at the same time (although opposite in d. Genkwa), and have brief petioles (stalks). The leaves tend to be clustered towards completion of the stems and are of various shapes, although constantly longer than wide. The leaf surface area may be smooth (glabrous) or hairy.
Numerous types flower in late winter season or extremely early spring. The flowers are grouped into clusters (inflorescences), either in the leaf axils towards completion of the stems or forming terminal heads. The inflorescences do not have bracts. Private flowers completely lack petals and are formed by four (rarely five) petaloid sepals, tubular at the base with totally free lobes at the apex. They range in colour from white, greenish yellow or yellow to bright pink and purple. Most of the evergreen types have greenish flowers, while the deciduous types tend to have pink flowers. There are twice the number of stamens as sepals, usually eight, set up in 2 series. Endurances either have short filaments or absence filaments completely and are normally held inside the sepal tube. The style is short or absent, and the preconception is head-shaped (capitate).
The ovary has a single chamber (locule). The fruits are one-seeded, and are either fleshy berries or dry and leatherlike (drupaceous). When ripe the fruit is usually red or yellow, often black. 
The sweet smell that wafts through the air in february and march can be attributed to only a few plants, one of them being daphne.
An old garden favorite, daphne odora, or winter season daphne is a plant no backyard should be without. While winter daphne is justly famous, she has a few sisters you need to learn more about.
Here are some of our favorites:.
Daphne odora: winter season daphne
Pink buds in january available to light pink flowers in february and march. The scent is so thick that on warmer days it can envelop an area. Leaves are evergreen & & leathery. There are numerous ranges of daphne odora and all of them have the exact same perfectly scented flowers. The main distinction is the leaf color, and there might be a minor difference in size as well – here are some of our favorites:.
‘ marginata’ has a small cream-colored edge to the leaves. The new growth is heavy, so when it rains (as it does a lot in portland) the branches splay a bit and put down, which leads to a plant that is extremely large. A mature plant is 3-4′ x 4-6′.
‘ Maijima’ is a new intro with thick velvety edges on the leaves. Supposedly it’s a bit smaller sized – 3-4′ x 3-4′.
Daphne odora ‘zuiko nishiki’
‘ zuiko nishiki’ has strong green leaves, and stiffer branching, so it’s less most likely to sag like ‘marginata’. Grows 4′ x 4′.
All winter season daphnes grow best in early morning or dappled sun. It suffices light to produce good blooming but not a lot that their leaves burn. In hot afternoon sun leaves appearance horrendous! Z7-9.
Daphne ‘lawrence crocker’
This little daphne just provides and provides. Aromatic, purple/mauve flower clusters bloom from spring thru fall as soon as the plant is established. Leaves are evergreen and narrow, about 1-2″ long. The plant is a nice little shrubby thing growing just to 12″ x12″. It is the perfect addition to a rock garden or container. Adequate drainage in the soil is vital to survival, so enable it and don’t over-water. Sun, part shade– zones 6-9.
Daphne transatlantica (d. Caucasica x d. Collina)
We may have conserved the very best for last. This is group of simple daphnes! We bring numerous varieties of d. Transatlantica – all have pale pink buds and white flowers that flower a number of times each year, from april-october. They are semi-evergreen, so in warm winter seasons they hold most of the leaves, however in harsher nw winters they’ll shed part of the foliage. Some variation takes place in the leaves and development routines – here’s a run-through.
Daphne everlasting fragrance’
Leaves are deep shiny green, 2″ and convex. Flowers are a bit larger than other d. Transatlanticas. Grows 2-3′ x2-3′.
Daphne ‘jim’s pride’
This range can be difficult to come by, but deserves listing. ‘Jim’s pride’ can be a little persnickety while getting developed, but those who stand firm are rewarded with flowers for six months, blue-green leaves and an easy-care plant that’s around 4′ x 4′.
Daphne ‘summer season ice’
Leaves have a creamy edge, adding to the wintry appearance all year. Blooms its heart out! Grows to about 3-4′ high and broad.
Sun or part shade, appreciates enhanced drain like any daphne however thrives with a little disregard. Hardy in zones 5-9. 
The best winter-flowering daphne shrubs to grow
Daphne bholua ‘jacqueline postill’
An evergreen daphne cultivar with leathery, mid-green leaves that is strong growing when established. Large clusters of mauve-pink flowers cover the shrub for weeks from midwinter into early spring. The plant’s fragrance is powerful, sweet and scrumptious, even on cold days. This daphne was raised at hillier nurseries by propagator alan postill and named for his wife. Height 1.8 m. Agm.
Daphne mezereum f. Alba
An uncommon, deciduous daphne with upright stems and small, narrow green leaves. The stellar, highly aromatic flowers cluster on stems in winter prior to the leaves appear, and are typically followed by yellow-colored berries. This daphne needs chalk soil to grow. Height 90cm.
Daphne odora rebecca (= ‘hewreb’)
A remarkably robust type of daphne odora with green leaves, boldly edged with velvety gold. A showy foliage plant, it has the bonus offer of aromatic winter flowers. A much better garden plant than previous cultivars with a comparable variegation. Height 1m.
Daphne bholua ‘darjeeling’
A semi-evergreen shrub with tan-coloured stems and pointed mid-green leaves. Clusters of aromatic, pale-pink flowers, which fade to white, appear from early winter. The initial daphne range was raised at rhs garden wisley from seed collected in darjeeling. Height 1.8 m.
Daphne bholua ‘limpsfield’
This variety blooms from midwinter and is heavily aromatic; the rich purple-pink flower edges merge into white faces. An excellent evergreen daphne shrub to grow close to your home in a sheltered position. Height 1.8 m.
Daphne bolua ‘peter smithers’
An evergreen or semi-evergreen daphne. In midwinter, clusters of deep, purple-pink buds open up to paler blossoms, which then become darker with age. This daphne variety was chosen at royal botanic gardens, kew’s wakehurst site from seed collected by sir peter smithers in nepal. Height 1.8 m.
A small, deciduous and unusual daphne shrub which flowers from late spring well into summer and sometimes into autumn. The clusters of white daphne flowers are fragrant and typically followed by yellow fruits. This daphne variety is best grown in dappled shade on wet, acid soil. Height 1.2 m.
A little, spreading, evergreen shrub that is happiest under the light shade of trees and tolerant of heavy clay soils. Shiny green leaves show off the large clusters of fragrant, yellow-green flowers that are produced freely all over this daphne in late spring. Height 60cm.
Daphne x burkwoodii ‘astrid’
A rounded, bushy daphne shrub with narrow, blue-green leaves that are finely edged with creamy yellow. Clusters of aromatic, pink flowers appear from late spring through to summer. An excellent shrub for foliage interest. 60cm.
A dwarf daphne shrub with prostrate branches and narrow evergreen leaves. The large clusters of sweetly aromatic, pink flowers appear in mid to late spring. Often difficult to develop, this daphne range requires a sheltered, open situation on chalk soil. Height 15cm.
Daphne x burkwoodii ‘lavenirii’
A cross between daphne cneorum and daphne caucasica that was raised in france in 1920. This rare daphne has clusters of extremely aromatic, pale-pink flowers, darker in the centres, from late spring well into summertime. A spreading out daphne shrub, it grows finest on alkaline soil. Height 60cm.
A daphne variety that’s bushy and upright in practice with glossy, evergreen leaves. This little shrub has particularly showy clusters of highly fragrant, purple-pink daphne flowers in mid-spring. Grows on alkaline or acid soil. Height 45cm. Agm. 
How to plant and grow daphne?
Growing daphne in the garden
Daphne requires a damp, free-draining, abundant soil that is acidic (ph 5 to 5.5 is optimum). It will not tolerate lime or alkaline soil at all. In locations with ph neutral or a little alkaline soils, daphne ought to be grown in a pot.
Before planting daphne, dig the soil over well and include lots of compost and weathered manure. Include a controlled-release fertiliser for acid-loving plants in your preparation.
When transplanting from a pot, avoid separating the ball of potting mix– daphne dislikes having its roots disrupted.
Select a semi-shaded area where your plant will be safeguarded from frosts, strong winds and hot afternoon sun in summer season. Avoid thick shade, which will hinder flowering.
Spread a sugarcane or lucerne mulch over the roots in summer season to keep the soil cool.
Daphne prospers in cool temperate to temperate climates. While it will tolerate light frost, it does not flourish in sub-tropical or tropical locations with high humidity.
While daphne likes soil that holds some wetness, it does not like wet feet, and will develop root rot in soil that remains wet for long periods. Let the soil dry out after watering or, in high rains locations, plant into a raised bed that drains pipes freely.
Growing daphne in pots
Daphne does not like being disturbed, so pick a pot that is large enough to permit a number of years of development before the plant will require to be re-potted. Ensure there are plenty of drain holes, and place a piece of flywire mesh in the base to keep the potting mix from rinsing.
Use a premium-quality potting mix that is specifically developed for acid-loving plants (frequently identified as being suitable for azaleas, camellias and gardenias).
Over summertime, move the pot to a shaded spot to prevent leaf burn. Keep in mind to water when the top 5cm or two of potting mix is dry to the touch.
A controlled-release fertiliser for acid-loving plants ought to be applied twice a year, in early spring and early fall. This can be supplemented with a water-soluble plant food, once again for acid lovers, from mid-spring to late summer to keep plants healthy.
Sometimes daphne may establish yellow leaves. Possible causes consist of a deficiency of a micronutrient, magnesium (mg). This can be repaired with epsom salts. Dissolve a level tablespoon in 4l of water in a watering can and sprinkle over the root system.
A yearly application of iron chelates (based on label directions) after flowering may also be beneficial to the total health of the plant.
Diseases and bugs that impact daphne
Strong, healthy daphne plants are hardly ever troubled by pests, but occasionally there may be an invasion of scale– little circular brown or black dots on the upper and undersides of leaves and stems. Each small dome secures a pest. If there are just a few present, peel them off and squash them. When great deals are visible, use a horticultural oil as directed.
How to prune daphne
Prune your daphne after flowering.
- Cut listed below buds or nodes.
- Cut at a minor angle. This will assist prevent rot.
How to propagate daphne
- Take 6-inch long cuttings and strip the leaves off the lower half.
- Dip the cutting in rooting hormonal agent.
- Plant the cutting in a pot filled with a wet mix of 6 parts compost and one part perlite. The lower half of the cutting must be under the mix. Company down to keep the cutting in place.
- Place the pot in partial shade, and keep wet and secured from wind.
- Roots should form in about six weeks. Transplant into the garden two weeks after roots have formed. 
How to grow a winter daphne
Winter daphne shrub can be grown from seeds gotten rid of from fruits. These seeds can be planted without cleaning and needs to germinate in the spring months. Seeds that do not germinate in their very first spring can be left for the following spring to germinate.
These plants can likewise be grown from little greenwood or semi-ripe cuttings of 2 to 4 inches (5 to 10 cm) long. These cuttings will take advantage of making use of a root hormone powder and will root after a duration of 6 to 10 weeks if planted in a well-drained medium.
Winter daphne plants are sensitive and need to not be transplanted when developed as numerous plants will not survive this turmoil. These plants should be watered well, but be permitted to dry out somewhat in between watering.
These plants require fast-draining soil that is abundant in organic product. The roots of these plants mustn’t be kept in a saturated substrate. They ought to be planted in a website with full sun to partial or dappled shade, that is protected from strong, consistent winds. A planting website that gets some afternoon shade is advised for gardens in extremely hot areas.
Usda strength zones 7 to 9 deal the ideal climate and temperature levels for growing winter season daphne and these plants will grow at a moderate rate there. 
A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology
The genus daphne belongs to the thymeleaceae family and contains over 90 types that are dispersed in asia, europe and parts of north africa. The types of the genus daphne are utilized in the conventional medicine of china, tibet, korea, and the middle east for the treatment of numerous conditions. A broad range of research studies has actually revealed the substantial biological capacity of these species as sources of biologically and pharmacologically active substances. Daphne species are a source of numerous classes of important phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and various classes of terpenes. The phytochemical variety of this genus is shown by over 350 secondary metabolites isolated from various types. The genus has a broad spectrum of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiviral, abortive and haemostatic impacts. A variety of bioactive secondary metabolites discovered in this genus might have possible use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Thus, types belonging to the genus daphne can be thought about an essential source both for the treatment of various disorders, due to the existence of a plethora of bioactive constituents with powerful bioactivities, and as possible leads in the discovery and synthesis of new medications. 
Historical plants – legacy from the acadians
Despite the wave of cold, rainy weather condition, it’s flowering now in the countryside, a sporadic, pink-blossomed shrub with a historical connection. The daphne was brought here by the acadians, and never ever having actually spread far, it persists today in spread pockets near what were as soon as acadian settlements. Provided its origin, it’s no coincidence that the daphne normally can be found growing wild near grand pre, in white rock and pereau.
You could call the daphne a historic plant in the sense that it’s gotten in touch with the old acadians. There are numerous plants growing wild and cultivated here with the same connection. The daphne is only one of many now common plants presented by the acadians. Some, like the daphne, were cultivated for ornamental purposes, but most were grown for practical uses, as dyes, in medication and as food supplements.
One of the most appealing plants is the wild white strawberry. Up until i talked recently with reg newell and his better half, botanist ruth newell of the e. C. Smith herbarium in wolfville, i wasn’t mindful this plant existed. Ms. Newell told me the white strawberry – so named because its berry is white – is thought to have been presented by the acadians and may have been used medicinally.
The white strawberry is incredibly rare and only can be found in a couple of places. Ms. Newell said she’s seen the plant in white rock along the gaspereau river and in a rough brookside location near oak opportunity in wolfville.
It’s stated that a few of the plants introduced by the acadians are ideas to the existence of their old settlements. In other words, they’re often discovered in abundance near an acadian homesite.
While it’s obviously typical in kings county today, the presence of the introduced red fly honeysuckle might provide ideas to acadian activity in a minimum of one part of the county. The editors of the nature of kings county two times point out the possibility of an acadian tidal mill as soon as existing on elderkin creek in between kentville and new minas. The website is perfect for such a mill, the editors say, but the “only proof of its presence is the presence of plants normal of those grown by the acadians.” one of those plants is the honeysuckle.
Lots of plants had medical usages, some were used in the kitchen; however not all that boiled down to us today are a welcome acadian tradition. One such plant is the buckthorn. The acadians presented buckthorn, which may have been used as a hedge however according to ruth newell was utilized medicinally. Newell states the buckthorn, which is common in the wolfville area, “has a habit of taking control of.” today, she states, “it is acknowledged as a severe intrusive types.”.
While plants (and trees) introduced by the acadians are said to use clues to the presence of homesites, numerous have actually spread out well beyond recognized settlement areas and are common. Still, they have a historic connection in that they were as soon as part and parcel of the acadian way of life. Besides the daphne and.
Honeysuckle, other plants pointed out in a nature of kings county as presented by the acadians include wormwood, chicory, slim vetch, caraway, hops and tansy. 
Uses of daphne odora
All parts of the plant are harmful. Skin contact with the sap can trigger dermatitis in some individuals.
There are no edible uses noted for daphne odora.
The flowers are really aromatic, they are put in sachets and utilized for pot-pourri. They are likewise used to perfume water. The cultivar ‘aureo-marginata’ can be used as a ground cover when planted about 1 metre apart each way. 
Conventional uses and advantages of mezereon
- Mezereum has actually been used in the past for treating rheumatism and indolent ulcers, however because of its hazardous nature it is no longer considered to be safe.
- The plant includes many toxic substances, including daphnetoxin and mezerein, and these are presently being examined for their anti-leukemia results.
- Bark is cathartic, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, stimulant and vesicant.
- Root bark is the most active clinically, however the stem bark is likewise utilized.
- It has been used in a lotion to cause discharge in indolent ulcers and likewise has an useful impact upon rheumatic joints.
- Fruits have actually periodically been used as a purgative.
- Holistic solution is made from the plant.
- It is used in the treatment of numerous skin grievances and inflammations.
- An ointment was formerly utilized to induce discharge in indolent ulcers.
- Bark is utilized for snake and other poisonous bites, and in siberia, by veterinary surgeons, for horses’ hoofs.
- In germany a cast of the berries is in your area used in neuralgia.
- Pieces of the root might be chewed in toothache.
- All parts of the plant are highly toxic.
- Skin contact with the sap can cause dermatitis in some individuals.
- Berries have shown fatal to kids.
- It may trigger diarrhea, vomiting and stomach ache.
- High doses can be toxic.
- It ought to be utilized under medical guidance.
- Dealing with the fresh branches can trigger rashes and eczema in delicate individuals.
- Intake of plant parts leads within a couple of hours to severe irritation and a burning experience in the mouth, with swelling of the lips and face, increased salivation, hoarseness and trouble in swallowing.
- These symptoms are soon followed by extreme abdominal pain, headache, numbness, queasiness and bloody diarrhea.
- Children (who might be poisoned by the attractive red fruits) typically show additional narcotic symptoms with muscular twitching.
- Bark is not typically taken internally and even when utilized externally this ought to be made with extreme caution and not used if the skin is broken. 
Are daphne shrubs safe for human beings?
All parts of the daphne shrub are poisonous to both animals and human beings. In fact, they are so poisonous that merely chewing on the flowers, foliage, bark, or red berries can be deadly. Two or 3 fruits from a daphne shrub can consist of enough acrid juice to be deadly to a child; all parts of every types are extremely hazardous.
Vomiting and diarrhea, with blood or mucus, are common symptoms, as well as skin blisters from the juice, and blisters of the soft tissues of the mouth from any plant parts chewed or swallowed. 
Plants have a crucial function in maintaining individuals’s health and improving the quality of human life. They are a crucial part of individuals’s diet plan, but they are also used in other spheres of human life as a healing resources, ingredients of cosmetic items, paints and others. The Daphne genus comes from household Thymeleaceae which includes 44 households with around 500 organic types. Th e plant species of the genus Daphne are utilized in the traditional medicine in China and tropical part of Africa for the treatment of various conditions. Previous studies revealed substantial biological capacity of these types as a source of pharmacologically active compounds. This suggests that this genus have a broad spectrum of biological activity including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortive, hypocholesterolemic and hemostatic effects. Furthermore, Daphne plants are the source of important bioactive phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. Different parts of the Daphne plants include specific bioactive metabolites and can represent a source of brand-new, natural, pharmacologically active compounds, which may possibly be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. 
- Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/daphne_( plant) #description