Durian

37 mins read

Durian is an evergreen, tropical tree found in southeast asia. The distinctive fruit has a spiky outer covering and smells of rotten eggs. The fruit, bark, roots, and leaves are utilized to make medication.

Individuals utilize durian for fever, hypertension, liver illness, and many other conditions, however there is no good clinical evidence to support these usages. [2]

History

Durian was believed to be from the area of borneo and sumatra, they grew wild along the malay peninsula, and was typically cultivated in a broad area from india to new guinea.

400 years earlier, it was traded across present-day myanmar, and was actively cultivated particularly in thailand and south vietnam.

The earliest known european reference to the durian is the record of niccolò da conti, who travelled to southeastern asia in the 15th century. The portuguese doctor garcia de orta likewise described durians in an article that he published in 1563.

In 1741, the german botanist georg eberhard rumphius published a book, which supply comprehensive and precise account of durians for over a century.

During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion in between durian and the soursop, for both of these species had tough green fruit. It is likewise fascinating to keep in mind the malay name for the soursop is durian belanda, meaning dutch durian.

In the 18th century, johann anton weinmann considered the durian to come from castaneae as its fruit resembled the horse chestnut.

Durian had likewise been planted in the americas however confined to botanical gardens. The very first seedlings were sent from the royal botanic gardens, kew, to auguste saint-arroman of dominica in 1884.

In southeastern asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the town level, most likely given that the late 18th century, and commercially given that the mid-20th century.

In my tropic isle, australian author and naturalist edmund james banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a friend in singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and took care of on his tropical island off the north coast of queensland.

Because the early 1990s, the domestic and worldwide need for durian in the association of southeast asian countries (asean) region has increased significantly, partially due to the increasing abundance of asia. [3]

Description

The durian tree, reaching 90 to 130 ft (27-40 m) in height in tropical forests, is typically erect with short, straight, rough, peeling trunk to 4 ft (1.2 m) in size, and irregular dense or open crown of rough branches, and thin branchlets coated with coppery or gray scales when young. The evergreen, alternate leaves are oblong-lance-olate, or elliptic-obovate, rounded at the base, abruptly pointed at the pinnacle; leathery, dark-green and glossy above, silvery or pale-yellow, and largely covered with gray or reddish-brown, hairy scales on the underside; 2 1/2 to 10 in (6.25-25 cm) long, 1 to 3 1/2 in (2.5-9 cm) broad. Malodorous, whitish to golden-brown, 3-petalled flowers, 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) large, with 5-lobed, bell-shaped calyx, are borne in pendant clusters of 3 to 30 directly from the old, thick branches or trunk.

The fruits are ovoid or ovoid-oblong to almost round, 6 to 12 in (15-30 cm) long, 5 to 6 in (12.5-15 cm) wide, and approximately 18 pounds (8 kg) in weight. The yellow or yellowish-green skin is thick, tough, semi-woody, and largely set with stout, greatly pointed spinal columns, 3- to 7-sided at the base. Handling without gloves can be uncomfortable. Inside there are 5 compartments consisting of the creamy-white, yellowish, pinkish or orange-colored flesh and 1 to 7 chestnut-like seeds, 3/4 to 2 1/4 in (2-6 cm) long with shiny, red-brown seed coat. In the best fruits, the majority of seeds are abortive. There are some odor-free cultivars but the flesh of the common durian has an effective smell which reminded the plant explorer, otis w. Barrett, of integrated cheese, decayed onion and turpentine, or “garlic, limburger cheese and some spicy sort of resin” however he stated that after eating a little the pulp “the odor is hardly seen.” the nature of the flesh is more complex-in the words of alfred russel wallace (much-quoted), it is “an abundant custard highly flavored with almonds … However there are periodic wafts of flavor that call to mind cream cheese, onion-sauce, sherry wine and other incongruous meals. Then there is an abundant glutinous smoothness in the pulp which absolutely nothing else possesses, however which adds to its delicacy. It is neither acid, nor sweet, nor juicy; yet it wants none of these qualities, for it is in itself best. It produces no nausea or other bad impact, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop.”. Barrett described the taste as “triplex in effect, initially a strong aromatic taste, followed by a tasty sweet flavor, then an unusual resinous or balsam-like taste of splendid but relentless relish.” an american chemist operating at the u.s. Rubber plantations in sumatra in modem times, was at first unwilling to attempt eating durian, was lastly encouraged and ended up being enthusiastic, stating it to be “definitely scrumptious”, something like “a mixture of ice cream, onions, spices, and bananas, all blended together.”.

Some fruits divided into 5 sections, others do not divided, however all fall to the ground when fully grown. [4]

Taxonomy

Durio sensu lato has 30 recognized species. Durio sensu stricto consists of 24 of these types. The 6 additional types consisted of in durio s.l. Are now thought about by some to comprise their own genus, boschia. Durio s.s. And boschia have equivalent vegetative characteristics and numerous shared flower characteristics. The essential distinction in between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in boschia and by longitudinal slits in durio s.s. These 2 genera kind a clade that is sis to another.

Genus in the tribe durioneae, cullenia. These 3 genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, as opposed to bithecate) anthers.

The genus durio is positioned by some taxonomists in the family bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined malvaceae that consists of bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller household of simply seven genera durionaceae.

Durio is typically included in bombacaceae because of the presence of monothecate anthers, instead of the bithecate anthers typical to the remainder of the mallows (and angiosperms, in general). Nevertheless, the first research studies to analyze mallow phylogeny utilizing molecular data discovered that the tribe durioneae must be positioned in the subfamily helicteroideae of a broadened malvaceae. The authors of these research studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most likely evolved convergently in durioneae and in the malvatheca clade (consisting of malvaceae s.l. Subfamilies malvoideae and bombacoideae).

A draft genome analysis of durian shows it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma-lyases– which control the smell of organosulfur compounds– may be mainly responsible for the distinct durian odour. Genome analysis likewise indicated that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton. [4]

Pharmacology

Durio zibethnus is primarily dispersed in southeast asia. Traditional chinese medicine believes that durian shells have the effects of clearing heat and purging fire, nourishing yin and hydrating dryness. Therefore, it is typically used as a pharmaceutic food in the chinese folk to help dealing with diseases. At present, the chemical constituents separated from durian shell consist of phenolic acids, phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenes, basic glycosides and other substances. Modern medicinal research studies show that durian shell has lots of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, regulation of glucose and lipid metabolic process. The chemical structure and medicinal impacts of durian shells are summed up in order to offer referrals for the more research study and application of durian shell. [5]

Ranges

Much variation happens in seedlings. There are over 300 called ranges of durian in thailand. Just a few of these remain in industrial growing. In malaysia, 100 types are graded for size and quality. In peninsular malaya, there are 44 clones with small distinctions in time and degree of blooming, floral and fruit morphology, productivity and edible quality. [6]

Among the most healthy fruits

Durian is very high in nutrients compared to most other fruits.

One cup (243 grams) of pulp provides:.

  • Calories: 357
  • Fat: 13 grams
  • Carbs: 66 grams
  • Fiber: 9 grams
  • Protein: 4 grams
  • Vitamin c: 80% of the everyday value (dv)
  • Thiamine: 61% of the dv
  • Manganese: 39% of the dv
  • Vitamin b6: 38% of the dv
  • Potassium: 30% of the dv
  • Riboflavin: 29% of the dv
  • Copper: 25% of the dv
  • Folate: 22% of the dv
  • Magnesium: 18% of the dv
  • Niacin: 13% of the dv

This nutrient profile makes durian among the most healthy fruits worldwide.

It’s also rich in healthy plant substances, consisting of anthocyanins, carotenoids, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Much of these function as anti-oxidants.

Summary

Durian is a really healthy fruit that’s rich in fiber, b vitamins, Vitamin c, and various healthy plant substances. [7]

Durian fruit benefits for health

Improves digestive health

The dietary fibre in durian helps in relieving bowel movement. This, in turn, helps prevent irregularity and improves gastrointestinal health. The thiamin in the fruit might improve hunger and general well-being in the elderly. The fiber in durian fruit likewise stimulates peristaltic motion relieving the gastrointestinal procedure in the intestines. It likewise assists treat concerns like bloating, excess flatulence, heartburn.

Prevents heart diseases

The organosulfur in durians might regulate the inflammatory enzymes and minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Various studies have actually found that intake of fruits that are abundant in soluble dietary fibre might help lower the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ldl-c) and lower the threat of coronary heart problem. Durian fruit is a heart-friendly food with high fiber content.

Maintains blood sugar levels

The manganese in durian may help in the maintenance of blood glucose levels. The consumption of durian also enhances the insulin response in patients with diabetes. The anti-oxidants in durian also help in reducing oxidative tension, which can otherwise intensify diabetes signs. Durian is a terrific fruit, being a healthy food with a low glycemic index (gi). Hence, the fruit would not cause blood sugar level spikes.

Regulates blood pressure levels

Durian is a good source of Potassium. Research shows that increasing Potassium intake can reduce blood pressure levels. The Potassium in the fruit also works as a vasodilator. It can help preserve the balance between fluid and salt in the body’s cells. The mineral might help in reducing tension on the capillary and decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke.

Helps in weight gain

Consuming durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is very advantageous for the individuals who wish to get some additional pounds without the inclusion of false calories in their diet plan. This advantage of durian fruit is mainly because of the high calories in them. Consuming 100 grams of durian provides around 147 calories of energy. It is likewise a great source of carbs that launch energy into the system at a stable rate and supplies us with the energy needed for our everyday activity. It is rich in healthy fats which supports our health and also aids in weight gain.

Strengthens resistance and metabolism

Our immune system is the defense mechanism of our body that plays a crucial function in keeping us healthy. It is the defense mechanism of our body that avoids disease-causing microorganisms such as germs, virus, and fungis, and so on. From entering our body and make us ill. It is important to increase the immune system and durian fruit can help in doing the very same. Eating durian fruit on a regular and moderate basis is extremely useful for strengthening our body immune system. This advantage of durian fruit is mainly because of the presence of Vitamin c.

Reduces cancer danger

Durians are said to have antioxidant residential or commercial properties that might help reduce cancer risk. The fruit contains polyphenols that inhibit cancer growth and even kill cancer cells. Free radicals are understood to ruin healthy cells and trigger the spread of cancer. Considering that the anti-oxidants of durians battle free radicals, they might also assist in lowering cancer threat.

Strengthens bones and joints

Durian fruits are rich in calcium, Potassium and Magnesium. These minerals add to bone health by increasing bone density, enhancing joint versatility and enhancing the tensile strength of collagen fibers. Routine consumption of durian fruit in measured amounts with diet promotes bone mineral density in males and females.

Remedies anemia

Durian is a rich source of iron and folate. Research studies connect iron and folate deficiency to anemia. Folate, if not present in appropriate quantities, might lower the number of red cell produced. This, in turn, can activate anemia. Other minerals in durian likewise set off the production of red blood cells in the body, hence aiding in the transportation of nutrients and fluids to all organs in the system.

Deals with insomnia

Eating durian fruit might deal with sleeping disorders. This advantage of durian fruit is because of the presence of tryptophan in it. tryptophan is an essential amino acid that converts to serotonin in our brain and induces a sensation of relaxation and joy. It likewise assists in releasing melatonin in our blood stream. melatonin is a hormone that makes us feel tired and drowsy and thus helps in curing insomnia. Additionally, other substances such as vitamin b complex, calcium, and iron, etc. Likewise play a considerable function in guaranteeing a good night’s sleep.

Natural aphrodisiac

Durians are an aphrodisiac, working for improving sexual health. It boosts sex drive and rejuvenates the sexual life. This benefit of durian is generally because of the nutritional substances like vitamin b6 and Potassium in it. Potassium is a natural vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels and enhances blood circulation. It also assists with impotence. Vitamin b6 likewise plays a substantial role in boosting blood flow and therefore promotes sexual health.

Anti-depressant homes

Eating durian fruit on a routine and moderate basis is really beneficial for fighting off versus the anxiety. This advantage of durian fruit is generally because of the presence of vitamin b6 in it. Vitamin b6 is an important nutrient that increases the production of serotonin in our system. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by the afferent neuron and is mostly discovered in the digestive system as well as blood platelets and throughout the central nerve system. It carries out numerous functions such as reduces depression, reduces anxiety, therefore boosting mood and boosting memory and concentration. [8]

Durian advantages for skin

Following are the major charm advantages of durian for the skin.

Decrease indications of premature aging

The rich nutritious profile of durian helps in keeping our skin health.

Anti-oxidants like Vitamin c, vitamin a, and other appropriate compounds in durian protect the skin cells from free radical damage and lower fine lines, wrinkles, age areas, dark areas, skin imperfections, and other signs of early aging.

Vitamin c enhances collagen production.

Collagen is an amino acid that maintains skin flexibility and avoids saggy skin and wrinkles.

Zinc, vitamin e, and other nutrients in durian also assist in keeping skin healthy.

Treats skin coloring

Antioxidants in durian protect our skin from complimentary radical damage and bring out natural glow of the skin.

It boosts collagen production, keep skin elasticity and increase skin smoothness.

Minerals and vitamins in durian fruit offer nourishment to skin and enhance complexion.

Minimize skin problems

Durian lower the threat of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Acne is a common skin disorder that generally takes place due to the clogging up of skin pores by contaminants, toxins, and other pollutants.

The cleansing compounds like Vitamin c and dietary fibers in durian eliminate toxic substances, toxins and other pollutants from our system.

When there are less toxins, they are less likely to collect in the skin pores and minimize the threat of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Dietary fibers control the secretion of excess oil from the sebaceous gland of the skin and avoid the worsening of acne.

Defense from harmful uv rays of sun

Prolonged direct exposure to the damaging uv rays of the sun might harm our skin and cause wrinkles, tough skin, liver spots, and other indications of early aging.

Uv rays can harm our skin and increase the danger of infections and cancers.

Antioxidants in durian safeguards our skin from oxidative tension caused by uv rays of the sun, and minimize the danger of infections and cancers.

Keeps our skin hydrated

Durian include about 65 percent water and aid in staying hydrated.

Remaining hydrated is important for our skin health as water rejuvenates our skin, keeps it hydrated, boost skin softness and smoothness.

It avoids dryness and dullness of the skin.

And, durians are abundant in minerals and vitamins that nurture our skin and supply more advantages to the skin.

Maintains skin health

Durian preserves our skin health due to the abundance of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, and dietary fibers, etc.

Antioxidants secure our skin from totally free extreme damage and keep signs of premature aging such as great lines, wrinkles, age spots, and so on at bay.

Dietary fibers in durian avoid our skin pores from getting clogged up by toxins and pollutants, and reduce danger of skin problems like acne and pimples.

Durian highlights the natural glow of the skin, and make our skin soft, supple, and radiant.

It helps in getting rid of dead skin cells and motivates the development of brand-new skin cells.

Other nutrients like b vitamins and Zinc play a crucial function in keeping skin healthy.

Durian benefits for hair

Some significant appeal advantages of durian for hair are as follows.

Promotes hair development

Durian benefit our hair and scalp, and motivates the growth of brand-new hair.

Anti-oxidants like Vitamin c, vitamin e, and other appropriate substances in durian protect our hair and scalp from complimentary extreme damage.

This minimize premature greying of hair, hair fall, split ends, and hair dryness.

Minerals and vitamins in durian supply nutrition to our hair and enhance them.

Zinc and b vitamins in durian encourages the growth of brand-new hair.

Decreases hair loss

Durian make our hair stronger and decrease danger of hair fall.

Vitamins and minerals in durian nurtures our hair follicles and make them strong and shiny.

Antioxidants secure the hair from ill impacts of oxidative tension.

When our hair is strong, danger of hair issues like hair fall, hair dryness lowers by a considerable level.

iron, Zinc and b vitamins in durian plays a crucial role in reducing hair fall danger.

Make our hair strong and glossy

Minerals and vitamins in durian provide nourishment to our hair, and reinforce them.

Anti-oxidants like Vitamin c and other relevant substances safeguard the hair and scalp from totally free extreme damage, and lower signs of early greying of hair.

Durian make our hair strong and lustrous, and decrease threat of hair issues.

Deals with scalp acne

Acne is a common skin issue that impact millions and are mainly brought on by the build-up of toxic substances, toxins and other impurities within the skin pores.

It can also happen at the scalp level and is called scalp acne.

Durian assists in treating skin problems like acne and scalp acne as it includes detoxifying compounds like dietary fibers and Vitamin c.

These substances eliminate toxic substances, pollutants, and other pollutants from our system.

When there are fewer toxins, they are less likely to accumulate in skin pores and reduce risk of skin issues such as acne and scalp acne.

Dietary fiber manages the secretion of excess oil from the skin pores, and avoids the scalp acne from aggravating.

Minimizing dandruff danger

Durian enhance our scalp health and minimize threat of scalp issues such as dandruff.

It offers nutrition to our hair and scalp, and keep them healthy.

The anti-microbial homes of durian safeguard the scalp from fungal infections, and decrease threat of scalp issues.

Durian lower scalp dryness, a typical reason for dandruff. [9]

Durian ice cream dessert

Components

  • 4 to 6 sectors fresh, frozen, or canned durian, more as needed
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  • 3 tablespoons granulated sugar, or to taste
  • 1 cup entire milk
  • 1 cup light cream

Steps to make it

  1. Collect the active ingredients.
  2. Eliminate the seeds from the durian and dig the flesh into an electric mixer. On low to medium speed, mix the flesh into a paste.
  3. Press the paste through a fine screen. You should have 4 ounces of durian paste at this point. (if not, utilize more durian.) Chill the durian paste until ready to use.
  4. In a medium bowl, whisk the egg yolks with the vanilla essence and sugar.
  5. Bring the milk and cream to a near boil over medium heat and after that minimize the heat to low. Pour in the egg mix, stirring continuously to thicken. Make sure not to let the mix boil, or the milk will curdle. (if you see bubbles forming at the edge of the pan, take it off the stove).
  6. Once a thick consistency, eliminate from the heat and permit the custard to cool. Chill the custard in the freezer for 30 to 45 minutes, up until it is just beginning to solidify.
  7. Slowly stir in the durian paste, 1 tablespoon at a time, until completely incorporated.
  8. Either continue freezing, stirring several times throughout, or complete the ice cream in an ice cream maker. [10]

Side effects of eating durian fruit in excess

Excessive dietary fiber is bad for stomach

Regular and moderate usage of durian fruit is extremely useful for our stomach and enhances our digestion health. This benefit of durian is mainly due to the existence of dietary fibers in them. The dietary fibers present in the durian function as a natural laxative which suggests it improves our bowel movement, and make sure smooth removal of stool from our system.

This eases constipation and also provides relief from other gastrointestinal problems such as stomach pain, irritable bowel syndrome, gas and bloating, etc.even though dietary fibers benefit our stomach, it is a good idea to be on the safe side and take in the fruit in moderation.

A lot of anti-oxidants are bad

Durian is an outstanding source of lots of anti-oxidants such as Vitamin c, vitamin a and other antioxidantal substances like phytonutrients, polyphenols, and flavonoids, etc.

These antioxidants and the pertinent compounds present in the durian fight with the complimentary radicals in our body, support them and prevents them from causing oxidative damage to our cells and tissues. This reduces the risk of various cancers.

Boosts the danger of hypoglycemia

Consuming durian fruit on a regular and moderate basis is very helpful for individuals with diabetes and for those who are at the risk of developing diabetes. This advantage of durian fruit is generally because of its low glycemic index. Glycemic index is a scale from 0 to 100 that identifies the rate at which a particular food item will release sugar into the bloodstream.

Being a low glycemic index fruit suggests durian releases sugar into the bloodstream at a slow rate and prevents an unexpected spike in the blood glucose level and thus helps in handling diabetes. Additionaly, the dietary fibers present in the durian lessen the rate at which sugar gets taken in by the bloodstream and hence assists in keeping blood sugar under control.

May trigger allergies

Durian fruit is an outstanding source of many nutrients like vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, etc. Existence of these substances makes durian extremely beneficial for us as they supply a number of health benefits and as well as charm advantages for our skin and hair.

However, not all of us can take pleasure in these advantages. It has been found that taking in durians may establish allergies in some individuals and they ought to prevent the fruit. Some common allergic symptoms that may occur are hives, nasal congestion, runny nose, throat pain, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Eating a lot of durians during pregnancy

Pregnancy is an important stage in the life of a lady. At this phase, it is important for her to make sure that she is having a balanced diet plan full of necessary nutrients like minerals and vitamins, etc. This is because what a mom eats not just identifies her health but likewise the health and wellness of the fetus developing in her womb.

Durian is an excellent fruit that supplies many nutrients like vitamins and minerals and as well as other compounds such as antioxidants, phytonutrients, polyphenols, and dietary fibers, etc. That assists in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The anti-oxidants such as Vitamin c and other appropriate substances like phytonutrients and polyphenols and so on. Secures the uterus and the fetus establishing in it from the oxidative damage brought on by the free radicals in our body. [11]

Dosage and forms

Please be advised that the dosages and kinds listed below are not indicated to change the guidance offered by your physician:.

Durian has no medically-accepted dosage, so it’s best to consume it in small amounts. You can delight in the fruit fresh or frozen. [12]

Interactions

Alcohol interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

The body breaks down the alcohol to eliminate it. Durian might decrease how fast the body breaks down alcohol. Consuming alcohol and taking durian may cause adverse results such as a pounding headache, throwing up, flushing, and other undesirable responses. Don’t consume any alcohol if you are taking durian.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health company.

Durian may increase blood sugar level. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar level. Taking durian along with diabetes medications might hinder the results of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication may require to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Prior to taking durian, talk with your healthcare professional if you take these or any other medications. [13]

Conclusions

These pesticide levels spotted in the fruits are unlikely to hurt the consumers for that reason it is safe to consume watermelon and durian in thailand. While our results discovered negligible danger associated with pesticide exposure from taking in these common tropical fruits, unique preventative measures need to be thought about to decrease overall direct exposure to these damaging pesticides from different foods. [14]

References

  1. Https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/durian
  2. Https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1458/durian
  3. Https://durians.com/pages/the-history-of-durian
  4. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/durian
  5. Https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1674638421001076#s0070
  6. Https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/durian_ars.html#varieties
  7. Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/durian-fruit#nutrition
  8. Https://www.netmeds.com/health-library/post/durian-fruit-health-benefits-nutrition-uses-for-skin-and-hair-recipes-side-effects
  9. Https://goodhealthall.com/durian-fruit-health-beauty-benefits/
  10. Https://www.thespruceeats.com/durian-ice-cream-694424
  11. Https://www.lifeberrys.com/healthy-living/5-side-effects-of-eating-durian-fruit-in-excess-180459.html
  12. Https://hellodoctor.com.ph/herbals-and-alternatives/herbal-medicines/benefits-durian-fruit-leaves/
  13. Https://www.rxlist.com/durian/supplements.htm#interactions
  14. Https://environhealthprevmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s12199-015-0452-8
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