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Fluoride is a type of the chemical element fluorine. It takes place naturally in nature and is found in body tissues containing calcium, such as bones and teeth.
Fluoride secures teeth from the germs in plaque. It also promotes brand-new bone formation. This is various than many medicines utilized for weak bones (osteoporosis), which battle osteoporosis by keeping bone from being broken down.
People frequently utilize fluoride to prevent cavities. It is also utilized for tooth plaque, a mild form of gum illness (gingivitis), osteoporosis, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of its other usages.
The FDA warns that swallowing excessive toothpaste can increase the danger for tooth staining. However this is likely more of a concern with long-lasting use rather than mistakenly swallowing it just once. Also, beginning June 2022, fluoride levels in mineral water can not surpass 0.7 mg per liter and need to be stated on the label. 
History of fluoride
When it pertains to the world of dental health, we discuss fluoride routinely. And although the majority of moms and dads know it’s good for their children’s teeth, they may not know why. When your kid consumes sugary foods, bacteria in their mouths produce acid that can gnaw at the minerals on the surface of the teeth. This makes them weaker and increases the possibilities of developing cavities. Fluoride has actually been shown to secure teeth from this decay and can even help reconstruct the tooth’s surface area! This mineral is the very best cavity fighter we have to help keep your entire household’s teeth healthy and strong.
Fluoride is most efficient when it comes from both internal and external sources. It can be obtained in two types: topical and systemic. Topical fluorides are used directly to the tooth enamel through fluoride tooth pastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride treatments in a dental office like Kid’s Dental Center. Particularly for kids who are at a moderate-to-high risk of developing cavities, the professional fluoride treatments our dental practitioners provide may be suggested every 3 or six months. The fluoride in this treatment can be found in a varnish and usually just takes a few moments to apply to the teeth. Your kid may be asked not to eat or drink for at least thirty minutes afterward to enable their teeth to absorb the fluoride and aid fix any tiny areas of damage.
Systemic fluoride is ingested through sources like fluoridated water and dietary fluoride supplements. Water fluoridation provides regular and consistent contact with low levels of fluoride. All water consists of some fluoride, and some groundwater and natural springs can have naturally high levels. Nevertheless, most water won’t have adequate naturally taking place fluoride to prevent dental caries. Lots of cities and counties will include and adjust the levels of fluoride discovered in their water in order to accomplish the optimal preventative advantages. This community water fluoridation is the most cost-efficient method of delivering fluoride to a large number of individuals and can decrease dental caries by approximately 25% in kids and adults.
Along with a good oral hygiene regimen and regular dental visits, fluoride can help keep your kid’s teeth healthy and strong throughout their lives. But how did we concern discover its benefits? What caused including it in everyday items like toothpaste, or including it to our water products? Let’s have a look at the history of fluoride to learn more!
How fluoride wound up in our water supply
Like much of modern medication, fluoride was come across by chance. In the early 1900’s, a dentist by the name of Frederick McKay discovered that practically 90% of the population of a particular Colorado town had strange brown staining on their teeth. He welcomed fellow dental practitioner G.V. Black to work together with him on finding the cause of this phenomenon. Through their research, they discovered that the staining was the result of imperfections in the advancement of the tooth enamel, what is now called fluorosis. They also found that individuals affected by this staining were surprisingly resistant to tooth decay.
Ultimately, McKay was able to trace the source of this staining to the regional supply of water. Thanks to significant natural fluoride deposits throughout the Western United States, the water in this particular Colorado town was specifically abundant in fluoride. Nevertheless, it wasn’t till the 1940s that this knowledge was applied towards strengthening teeth. The Grand Rapids water fluoridation research study was a task covering fifteen years, during which researchers kept an eye on the rate of dental caries amongst almost 30,000 schoolchildren. After a decade, they discovered that the rate of cavities had actually decreased by 60% among Grand Rapids children who were born after water fluoridation started. Based upon the success of this pilot research study, many states made the decision to move on with public water fluoridation programs, minimizing the rates of tooth decay amongst their citizens, and enhancing their total oral health. Water fluoridation is affordable, even for little neighborhoods, and saves both families and the health care system money.
Due to the predominance of acid-producing bacteria triggered by our modern-day diet, fluoride has actually ended up being important to shield the teeth versus daily overuse. Presently, about 75% of the US population are served by neighborhood water systems that contain enough fluoride to secure their teeth. However, roughly 100 million Americans still do not have access to water with fluoride. Because it has shown advantages, the United States has actually set a national goal for 80% of Americans to have water with enough fluoride to prevent tooth decay by 2020.
Topical application of fluoride
Water fluoridation programs are an exceptionally essential method of improving our dental health, but they are still an outcome of the initial research study done by McKay and his colleagues. More recently, researchers have found that the protective elements of fluoride are obtained from direct contact with the tooth enamel, strengthening it and protecting it versus acid. The topical application of fluoride from oral rinses, toothpastes, and expert fluoride treatments has in fact been shown to carry out more efficiently than the systemic delivery of fluoride through treated water.
A word on fluorosis
Systemic delivery can produce some adverse effects at high doses, well above what you would discover in public water products. Fluoride, like any mineral, can be bad for you if you take in too much. Typically, tarnished spots and brown staining of the tooth enamel are the most common sign of excessive fluoride usage.
CDC physician with a client
Keeping your kid’s smile strong and healthy with Kid’s Dental Center.
The benefits fluoride attends to kids can’t be beat! This helps set them up for a strong, healthy smile throughout their life. For kids ages 1-8, fluoride assists to enhance the adult teeth that are establishing under the gums. For older children, fluoride supports tooth enamel and can help reconstruct it in certain cases. This leads to fewer and less severe cavities, less need for fillings and tooth removal, and less tooth decay in general. 
Fluorine is estimated to be the 13th-most abundant component in Earth’s crust and is extensively distributed in nature, completely in the form of fluorides. The vast bulk is held in mineral deposits, the most commercially crucial of which is fluorite (CaF2). Natural weathering of some kinds of rocks, along with human activities, launches fluorides into the biosphere through what is often called the fluorine cycle.
Fluoride is naturally present in groundwater, fresh and saltwater sources, as well as in rainwater, especially in urban areas. Seawater fluoride levels are usually in the series of 0.86 to 1.4 mg/L, and typical 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter). For comparison, chloride concentration in seawater is about 19 g/L. The low concentration of fluoride shows the insolubility of the alkaline earth fluorides, e.g., CaF2.
Concentrations in fresh water differ more considerably. Surface area water such as rivers or lakes normally includes between 0.01– 0.3 mg/L. Groundwater (well water) concentrations vary a lot more, depending upon the presence of regional fluoride-containing minerals. For example, natural levels of under 0.05 mg/L have been detected in parts of Canada however up to 8 mg/L in parts of China; in general levels seldom exceed 10 mg/liter.
In parts of Asia the groundwater can consist of alarmingly high levels of fluoride, causing severe health issue.
Worldwide, 50 million people receive water from water materials that naturally have near to the “ideal level”.
In other locations the level of fluoride is very low, in some cases causing fluoridation of public water materials to bring the level to around 0.7– 1.2 ppm.
Mining can increase regional fluoride levels.
Fluoride can be present in rain, with its concentration increasing substantially upon exposure to volcanic activity or climatic contamination stemmed from burning fossil fuels or other sorts of market, particularly aluminium smelters.
All greenery consists of some fluoride, which is taken in from soil and water. Some plants concentrate fluoride from their environment more than others. All tea leaves consist of fluoride; however, mature leaves contain as much as 10 to 20 times the fluoride levels of young leaves from the exact same plant.
Fluoride can act as a base. It can combine with a proton (H+):.
F − + H+ → HF.
This neutralization reaction kinds hydrogen fluoride (HF), the conjugate acid of fluoride.
In aqueous option, fluoride has a pKb value of 10.8. It is for that reason a weak base, and tends to remain as the fluoride ion instead of generating a significant amount of hydrogen fluoride. That is, the following balance favours the left-hand side in water:.
Nevertheless, upon prolonged contact with moisture, soluble fluoride salts will break down to their particular hydroxides or oxides, as the hydrogen fluoride gets away. Fluoride stands out in this regard amongst the halides. The identity of the solvent can have a remarkable effect on the equilibrium moving it to the right-hand side, greatly increasing the rate of decomposition.
Structure of fluoride salts
Salts containing fluoride are numerous and adopt myriad structures. Typically the fluoride anion is surrounded by 4 or 6 cations, as is common for other halides. Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the very same structure. For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures frequently differ those of the chlorides, as shown by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F − centers. In CaCl2, each Ca2+ ion is surrounded by six Cl − centers. The difluorides of the transition metals frequently adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride structures.
Upon treatment with a basic acid, fluoride salts transform to hydrogen fluoride and metal salts. With strong acids, it can be doubly protonated to provide H2F+
. Oxidation of fluoride offers fluorine. Solutions of inorganic fluorides in water include F − and bifluoride HF − 2. Couple of inorganic fluorides are soluble in water without going through considerable hydrolysis. In regards to its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more highly solvated in protic solvents due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. Its closest chemical relative is hydroxide, since both have similar geometries.
The majority of fluoride salts liquify to provide the bifluoride (HF − 2) anion. Sources of true F − anions are rare because the highly basic fluoride anion abstracts protons from many, even adventitious, sources.
Relative unsolvated fluoride, which does exist in aprotic solvents, is called “naked”. Naked fluoride is a strong Lewis base, and a powerful nucleophile. Some quaternary ammonium salts of naked fluoride include tetramethylammonium fluoride and tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Cobaltocenium fluoride is another example. Nevertheless, they all lack structural characterization in aprotic solvents. Because of their high basicity, numerous so-called naked fluoride sources remain in truth bifluoride salts. In late 2016 imidazolium fluoride was synthesized that is the closest approximation of a thermodynamically stable and structurally identified example of a “naked” fluoride source in an aprotic solvent (acetonitrile). The sterically requiring imidazolium cation stabilizes the discrete anions and secures them from polymerization.
At physiological pHs, hydrogen fluoride is typically completely ionised to fluoride. In biochemistry, fluoride and hydrogen fluoride are equivalent. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, is considered to be a micronutrient for human health, essential to prevent dental cavities, and to promote healthy bone growth. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) is a recognized accumulator of fluorine compounds, released upon forming infusions such as the common drink. The fluorine compounds break down into products including fluoride ions. Fluoride is the most bioavailable kind of fluorine, and as such, tea is potentially a lorry for fluoride dosing. Around, 50% of taken in fluoride is excreted renally with a twenty-four-hour duration. The rest can be retained in the oral cavity, and lower digestive system. Fasting dramatically increases the rate of fluoride absorption to near 100%, from a 60% to 80% when taken with food. Per a 2013 study, it was found that usage of one litre of tea a day, can potentially supply the everyday suggested consumption of 4 mg per day. Some lower quality brands can supply as much as a 120% of this quantity. Fasting can increase this to 150%. The research study shows that tea drinking communities are at an increased threat of dental and skeletal fluorosis, in the event where water fluoridation is in effect. Fluoride ion in low dosages in the mouth decreases tooth decay. For this reason, it is utilized in tooth paste and water fluoridation. At much higher doses and frequent exposure, fluoride causes health problems and can be poisonous. 
What are the functions of fluoride?
Among the primary functions of fluoride is to keep the health of our bones and teeth.
Fluoride plays a key role in forming our teeth, by assisting to enhance our tooth enamel throughout their development and advancement. It also safeguards them from cavities (tooth decay), by acting in the saliva and producing a layer over our teeth to decrease the damage caused by acids from foods or those produced by oral bacteria.
Fluoride also helps to improve the density and hardness of bones, making them more stable. 
5 foods that contain fluoride
If you ask your dental expert, they’ll have a lot to say about fluoride! That’s because fluoride provides numerous benefits for your oral health. Did you understand that fluoride is a naturally taking place mineral a lot of foods give fluoride? Continue reading for 5 foods which contain fluoride so you can meet your fluoride needs from natural sources, too.
Grapes, raisins, and red wine
Grapes are an exceptional natural source of fluoride, which explains why raisins consist of one of the greatest concentrations of any food. It’s likewise one of the most versatile foods which contain fluoride. You can eat grapes fresh from the vine, sprinkle raisins on your morning oatmeal, or take pleasure in an aromatic glass of white wine or grape juice. Simply make certain to watch out for sugarcoated in raisins or juice.
The types of fruit that contain fluoride are greatly diverse and seemingly limitless. Apples, strawberries, bananas, peaches, watermelon, and cherries are all on the list. It’s finest to consume fruit fresh to enjoy the optimum advantages of the minerals and other nutrients they offer.
Many veggies are likewise a wonderful source of natural fluoride. Spinach and potatoes top the list. Like grapes, potatoes are likewise extremely versatile with so many methods to cut, peel, prepare, and enjoy them.
Shrimp, crab legs, and other seafood not only produce an elegant supper or appetiser on special occasions, but they are likewise a great source of fluoride.
Tea and coffee
Black tea and coffee are both natural sources of fluoride. For an added boost, if your city adds fluoride to the water system, try developing with faucet water for double the fluoride!
The correct amount of fluoride
If you’re wanting to include extra fluoride to your routine, it can be handy to talk with your dental expert about dental items and foods that contain fluoride to help make sure that you get the correct amount. Fluoride uses numerous advantages for your dental health and your dental practitioner will enjoy to assist you find methods to include it to your diet plan and routine so that you get the optimum gain from this amazing mineral. 
Mechanism of action
The avoidance of dental caries by topical fluoride is attained by different systems. Sodium fluoride eliminates germs that cause caries, such a Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli by interfering with their metabolic activities that lead to the formation of lactic acid. Fluoride ions trigger the inhibition of glycolytic and other enzymes involved in bacterial metabolism. It changes the permeability of cell membranes, reducing the pH in the cytoplasm of the cell, causing a decrease in acidity, which is generally implicated in tooth decay.
When administered at low topical dosages, fluoride in both saliva and plaque and saliva prevent the demineralization of healthy tooth enamel while remineralizing teeth that have previously been demineralized. Sodium fluoride is soaked up by the surface of hydroxyapatite crystals on the teeth, which are required for mineralization. This renders the teeth more resistant to demineralization by changing the apatite crystal solubility. Sodium fluoride inhibits the demineralization of teeth in a pH-related way. When used in high dosages, in formulas such as the fluoride varnishes or gels, sodium fluoride forms a layer on the surface of tooth enamel. When the pH of the mouth is reduced due to acid production by bacteria such as S.mutans, fluoride is released, interfering with bacterial metabolic process, and after that acts to remineralize the teeth. 
What is fluoride used for?
In the context of human health, fluoride is primarily used to improve dental health. You can sometimes discover it in your local supply of water and in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) items, consisting of:.
- mouth washes
If you tend to get a great deal of cavities, your dentist may recommend using a prescription mouth rinse with fluoride. These rinses generally have a higher concentration of fluoride than OTC choices do.
Fluoride is also used:.
- in medical imaging scans, such as animal scans
- as a cleaning agent
- in pesticides
- to make Teflon, steel, and aluminum products 
All throughout the United States, fluoride is contributed to public supplies of drinking water as a public health procedure to minimize cavities, likewise known as dental caries. Decisions about including fluoride to public drinking water are made at the regional or state level.
Fluoride supplements has actually been found to prevent the process of dental caries in infants, kids, and adults. Fluoride exerts this useful effect on teeth through direct contact, and it also secures establishing teeth that are still below the gums from the eventual advancement of cavities.
Fluoride is believed to assist avoid tooth decay in two methods: By avoiding bacterial overgrowth and mineralizing the teeth.
Fluoride to the rescue
It’s mainly avoidable, however dental caries is the most typical persistent disease in both kids and grownups in the United States. Still, the number of cases has declined over the last 40 years, and many people credit the infusion of fluoride in public drinking water as one contributing aspect.
Preventing bacterial overgrowth
Fluoride has been shown to decrease the overgrowth of certain bacteria that may play a role in causing dental caries. Fluoride lowers the pH level in the mouth, making the oral environment more acidic and less congenial to bacteria.
Fluoride has actually been found to prevent the growth of 3 types of oral germs: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis.
Mineralization of teeth
Fluoride interacts with the teeth to form a material called fluorapatite, which mineralizes the teeth. Mineralization is a procedure of chemical hardening, an impact that avoids tooth demineralization (breakdown). Surprisingly, while fluorapatite is not a natural element of teeth, it is useful and has not been found to trigger any damage to teeth.
The fluorapatite mineralization brought on by fluoride supplementation likewise helps the teeth withstand damage that can be brought on by food, beverages, and bacteria.
In regards to human health and nutrition, fluoride is a trace element, which comprises a relatively little portion of the body’s structure.
Small but Mighty
Fluoride is thought about a trace element, indicating that it exists in bodily tissues only in small (or trace) quantities, or about 0.1% by volume. 
Fluoride shortage is a condition of the absence amount of fluoride in the body.
Fluoride is a microelement found in trace amounts in the organism. In the body, fluoride comprises the teeth and bones (95% of its overall amount) in the form of calcium fluoride. Fluoride includes into the teeth and types and solidifies the tooth’ enamels, creates the acid resistance and resistance to bacteria of the dental cavity. Some researchers recommend that fluoride avoids osteoporosis in ladies in the postmenopausal period.
Fluoride is the most bioavailable kind of fluorine, this form of fluorine is seen in the tea, that makes it important as a source or fluoride. About half of fluoride is excreted by the kidneys within 24 hr after the absorption.
Causes and risk factors
Fluoride deficiency may be caused by the insufficient quantity of the fluoride in the diet plan. However, intake of fluoride in greater quantities might be toxic and lead skeletal fluorosis (consumption of 20-80 mg/day).
Fluoride deficiency causes the following symptoms:.
- Badly formed or weak teeth;
- Dental caries (tooth decay);
- Teeth plaques;
- Breakable or weak bones;
- Predisposition to bone fractures;
- Hip fractures in senior;
Sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate (fluoride-containing substances) are administered topically and systemically to prevent the tooth decay. These compounds may be utilized to fluoridate water and in the production of oral health items. 
Extreme exposure to fluoride has been connected to a variety of health concerns.
A fluoride content of 0.7 ppm is now considered best for oral health. A concentration that is above 4.0 ppm could be dangerous.
Direct exposure to high concentrations of fluoride throughout childhood, when teeth are developing, can result in mild oral fluorosis. There will be tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth.
This does not impact the health of the teeth, however the staining may be noticeable.
Breastfeeding infants or making up formula milk with fluoride-free water can help secure little kids from fluorosis.
Children below the age of 6 years ought to not utilize a mouthwash which contains fluoride. Kids must be supervised when brushing their teeth to ensure they do not swallow tooth paste.
Excess direct exposure to fluoride can lead to a bone illness called skeletal fluorosis. Over several years, this can result in pain and damage to bones and joints.
The bones might end up being solidified and less flexible, increasing the risk of fractures. If the bones thicken and bone tissue builds up, this can contribute to impaired joint movement.
Sometimes, excess fluoride can damage the parathyroid gland. This can lead to hyperparathyroidism, which involves unchecked secretion of parathyroid hormonal agents.
Lower calcium concentrations in bones make them more susceptible to fractures.
In 2017, a report was released recommending that exposure to fluoride before birth could lead to poorer cognitive results in the future.
The researchers measured fluoride levels in 299 ladies during pregnancy and in their kids between the ages of 6 and 12 years. They tested cognitive capability at the ages of 4 years and between 6 and 12 years. Higher levels of fluoride were connected with lower scores on IQ tests.
In 2014, fluoride was recorded as a neurotoxin that could be dangerous to kid advancement, along with 10 other commercial chemicals, including lead, arsenic, toluene, and methylmercury.
Other health problems
According to the International Association of Oral Medication and Toxicology (IAOMT), a company that campaigns against making use of included fluoride, it may likewise contribute to the following health issue:.
- acne and other skin problems
- cardiovascular issues, including arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification, high blood pressure, myocardial damage, heart insufficiency, and cardiac arrest
- reproductive problems, such as lower fertility and early adolescence in ladies
- thyroid dysfunction
- conditions impacting the joints and bones, such as osteoarthritis, bone cancer, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ)
- neurological problems, perhaps resulting in ADHD
One review describes fluoride as an “severe electron scavenger” with an “insatiable hunger for calcium.” The researchers call for the balance of dangers and advantages to be reconsidered.
Severe, top-level exposure to fluoride can lead to:.
- stomach pain
- excessive saliva
- nausea and throwing up
- seizures and muscle spasms
This will not result from drinking faucet water. It is only most likely to take place in cases of unintentional contamination of drinking water, due, for example to a commercial fire or surge.
It is worth remembering that many substances are harmful in large amounts but useful in small amounts. 
Brushing your teeth completely with fluoride tooth paste is among the most effective ways of preventing tooth decay.
A variety of toothpastes are available consisting of various levels of fluoride. The amount of fluoride in the tooth paste can be discovered on the side of television and is measured in parts per million (ppm).
Toothpastes consisting of 1,350 to 1,500 ppm fluoride are the most reliable. Your dentist may recommend you to use higher-strength toothpaste if you or your child is at specific risk of tooth decay.
- Kids under 3 years old must brush twice daily, with a smear of toothpaste including a minimum of 1,000 ppm fluoride.
- Kids in between 3 and 6 years old should brush a minimum of two times daily with a pea-sized quantity of tooth paste including more than 1,000 ppm fluoride.
- Grownups need to brush a minimum of two times daily with a tooth paste containing 1,350-1,500 ppm fluoride.
Do not use mouthwash at the same time as brushing. Use it at an alternative time, since it gets rid of the fluoride in the toothpaste 
Fluoride dose details
- Mg of fluoride (mg f) each day (2.2 mg tablet of sodium fluoride consists of 1 mg of fluoride)
- Fluoride supplements are commercially available in the form of drops or tablets. A sample prescription might read:
- Sodium fluoride tablets 2.2 mg
- One tablet every day to be chewed and swished prior to swallowing
- Caution: store out of reach of kids
- Supplements supply a topical as well as systemic effect. The tablets should be thoroughly chewed and swished in between the teeth prior to swallowing. The child must not eat or drink for thirty minutes after supplement ingestion
- Fluoride levels in human breast milk are less than 0.05 ppm despite drinking water and maternal plasma levels. The practitioner might wish to think about recommending fluoride supplements in exclusively breast fed infants in optimally fluoridated areas 
What other drugs will impact fluoride?
Some medications can make fluoride much less efficient when taken at the same time. If you take any of the following medications, take your fluoride dose 1 hour before you take the other medication:.
- An antacid;
- A laxative; or
- A multivitamin or mineral supplement that contains calcium, aluminum, or magnesium.
Other drugs may impact fluoride, including prescription and non-prescription medications, vitamins, and organic items. Inform your medical professional about all your existing medications and any medicine you start or stop using. 
What are cautions and precautions for fluoride?
- Greater dosages are hazardous and can deteriorate bones and ligaments, and trigger muscle weak point and nervous system problems. High doses of fluoride in children prior to their irreversible teeth come through the gums can trigger tooth discoloration
- Toothpaste and fluoride rinses must not be swallowed routinely, especially in kids. It’s an excellent concept to make certain that kids under 6 years of age use only a pea-sized quantity of fluoride-containing toothpaste, just in case they swallow some
- This medication consists of fluoride. Do not take luride, karidium, fluoritab, pediaflor, or sodium fluoride if you are allergic to fluoride or any components contained in this drug
- Keep out of reach of kids. In case of overdose, get medical assistance or contact a toxin nerve center immediately
Hypersensitivity to fluoride, tartrazine, parts of the solution.
Fluoride content in driving water greater than 0.7 ppm.
Low sodium or sodium-free diet plans.
1 mg tablet in children under 3 years of age or when consuming water has over 0.3 ppm.
1 mg/5 ml rinse in kids under 6 years of age.
Higher dosages are hazardous and can weaken bones and ligaments, and cause muscle weakness and nerve system issues. High doses of fluoride in kids before their irreversible teeth come through the gums can cause tooth discoloration.
Toothpaste and fluoride rinses need to not be swallowed consistently, especially in children. It’s a great idea to make certain that kids under 6 years of age usage only a pea-sized amount of fluoride-containing tooth paste, simply in case they swallow some.
Pregnancy and lactation
Fluoride may be acceptable for usage during pregnancy. Either animal research studies reveal no threat but human studies are not available or animal studies revealed small risks and human research studies were done and revealed no threat.
Fluoride is safe throughout breastfeeding when utilized in doses below 10 mg per day or elemental fluoride; it is safe in quantities found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and fluoride dental treatments. 
All organisms are exposed to fluoride from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Really high intakes have been observed in locations worldwide in which the environment is abundant in fluoride and where groundwater high in fluoride is taken in by people. Increased exposure might take place in the vicinity of point sources. Fluoride in dental products is an extra source for many people.
Fluoride has both useful and destructive impacts on human health, with a narrow range between the intakes at which these take place.
Results on the teeth and skeleton may be observed at direct exposures below those associated with the advancement of other organ- or tissue-specific adverse health impacts.
Impacts on the bone (e.g., skeletal fluorosis and fracture) are thought about the most pertinent outcomes in examining the negative effects of long-term exposure of humans to fluoride.
Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling special needs that has a significant public health and socioeconomic effect, impacting millions of individuals in numerous regions of africa, china and india.
Intake of fluoride in water and foods items is the main causative aspect for endemic skeletal fluorosis. In some areas, the indoor burning of fluoride-rich coal likewise functions as an essential source of fluoride.