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Glucosamine is a natural compound found in cartilage– the tough tissue that cushions joints.

In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a laboratory. There are numerous forms of glucosamine, consisting of glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements aren’t considered interchangeable.

Individuals use glucosamine sulfate orally to deal with an agonizing condition triggered by inflammation, breakdown and ultimate loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).


Research study on glucosamine usage for particular conditions reveals:.

Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate may provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Some research study shows that it might also help slow knee joint degeneration connected with osteoarthritis. More research studies are needed to figure out the benefits of glucosamine sulfate supplements for osteoarthritis of the hip, spine or hand.

Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research study suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce discomfort related to rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, researchers didn’t see an enhancement in inflammation or the number of painful or inflamed joints.

When considering glucosamine, checked out item labels carefully to make sure you select the proper type. There’s less scientific proof to support using N-acetyl glucosamine in treating osteoarthritis, and more research is required to verify its benefits. (1 ).


The body uses glucosamine to build and repair cartilage. Cartilage is a versatile, hard, rubbery connective tissue that safeguards the bones in the joints. It provides padding and avoids the bones from rubbing together. As individuals age, their cartilage can become less versatile and start to break down. This can result in pain, inflammation, and tissue damage, which, for example, occurs in osteoarthritis.

There is some proof that glucosamine might slow this process and advantage cartilage health.

Glucosamine happens naturally in the body, but levels fall as individuals grow older. In time, the decrease might contribute to joint wear and tear. (2 ).


Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose) is an endogenous aminomonosaccharide synthesized from glucose and made use of for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine is present in almost all human tissues, highly concentrated in connective tissues of the body, and found at highest concentrations in the cartilage. In human beings, about 90 percent of glucosamine is absorbed when administered as an oral dose of glucosamine sulfate, and is rapidly incorporated into articular cartilage. Glucosamine can be discovered in lots of kinds, including sulfate, hydrochloride, N-acetyl-glucosamine, or chlorohydrate salt, and as a dextrorotatory isomer. There is some dispute over which form is most efficient. Pooled findings from research studies utilizing a specific business glucosamine sulfate product called Dona recommend that this formula decreases osteoarthritis discomfort, whereas other formulations do not.11 Another research study performed in China offers some proof that glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are equally efficient.

The sulfate salt of glucosamine kinds one half of the disaccharide subunit of keratan sulfate, which decreases in patients with osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid (discovered in articular cartilage and synovial fluid) is composed of duplicating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. Possible mechanisms of action for the chondroprotective result of glucosamine consist of direct stimulation of chondrocytes, incorporation of sulfur into cartilage, and defense versus degradative procedures within the body through transformed gene expression. The precise system of action for the possible impact of glucosamine is unidentified. (3 ).


In alternative medicine, advocates declare that glucosamine may aid with the following health issue:.

  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • Swelling
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (such as ulcerative colitis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Temporomandibular joint disorder
  • Health Benefits

Glucosamine has actually been commonly studied with undetermined results. It may use health benefits consisting of a reduction in pain, although a 2018 review published in the journal Orthopedics suggests the benefits might be due to a placebo impact.

Here’s a take a look at some of the crucial studies and their findings:.


Glucosamine might be of advantage in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in the knee. In spite of some really favorable findings, there also a lot of evidence contradicting these claims.

An early report released in the Cochrane Database of Organized Reviews concluded that some preparations of glucosamine may reduce discomfort and improve operating in people with recognized osteoarthritis. The study examined 20 randomized controlled research studies involving a total of 2,570 adults.

Among the biggest glucosamine studies, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), questioned these results. Called the Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), the two-year study compared the effectiveness of glucosamine and chondroitin in 662 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and concluded that neither revealed any advantage in alleviating knee discomfort. Subsequent research studies have actually supplied no clearer evidence of any benefits. However, some scientists still contend that glucosamine not only helps alleviate arthritis discomfort but also avoids cartilage loss.

According to a six-year research study published in Arthritis Care & & Research, cartilage loss appeared to be slowed in grownups with knee osteoarthritis who had actually taken glucosamine and chondroitin for approximately 6 years. The benefits seemed greater the longer the supplements are taken.

More research study is required to understand these contradictions.


Glucosamine is potentially reliable for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis, according to a little study published in the Journal of Reseach in Pharmacy Practice. The trial included 60 adults with TMJ who were provided either glucosamine, ibuprofen, or a placebo for 90 days. Although glucosamine and ibuprofen were both more reliable in easing discomfort than a placebo, ibuprofen proved superior to glucosamine.

Low Back Pain

Glucosamine might not benefit individuals with chronic lower neck and back pain and degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis, according to a 2010 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The six-month trial, including 250 individuals with both conditions, concluded that glucosamine was no better than the placebo in providing arthritis pain relief. (4 ).

Inadequate Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for …

Joint pain brought on by drugs that lower estrogen levels. Early research study recommends that taking a mix of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in 2 or 3 divided doses daily for 24 weeks minimizes discomfort in women taking drugs that lower estrogen levels for early stage breast cancer.

Unpleasant bladder syndrome (Interstitial cystitis). Early research study suggests that taking a specific product including glucosamine sulfate, salt hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, quercetin, and rutin (cystoprotek, Tischon Corporation, Westbury, NY) 4 times daily for 12 months minimizes signs of painful bladder syndrome.

Joint pain. Research study shows that taking a specific item including glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Assistance, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint discomfort. But this item does not appear to assist joint stiffness or function.

Knee discomfort. Some research reveals that taking a specific product consisting of glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) in three divided dosages daily for 8 weeks decreases joint pain in people with knee pain. However this item does not seem to help joint tightness or function. Other early research reveals that taking 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily for 28 days does not minimize knee pain in athletes following a knee injury. Nevertheless, it does seem to enhance knee movement.

Numerous sclerosis. Early research reveals that taking 1000 mg of glucosamine sulfate by mouth daily for 6 months might reduce the regression of several sclerosis.

Jaw pain (Temporomandibular disorder). Some research study shows that taking glucosamine sulfate works about as well as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, etc) For easing jaw discomfort. In some individuals, pain relief appears to continue for as much as 90 days after glucosamine sulfate is ceased. However, research suggests that when 1200 mg of glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth daily for 6 months, jaw pain and the capability to open the jaw are not enhanced.

  • Weight-loss.
  • Other conditions. 5

Who Should Take Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate?

Numerous patients who suffer from osteoarthritis may benefit from the positive effects of taking this supplement. The painful symptoms of osteoarthritis might appear when cartilage becomes worn, and exposed bones start to rub together. Conventional medication does not yet have a tested treatment to stop or slow the progression of osteoarthritis. Conventional medical treatment includes drug treatment to control the pain related to osteoarthritis. These treatments are in some cases disappointing for physicians and patients due to the fact that medications might not provide complete relief and can have unwanted negative effects. A few of these clients might be prospects for dietary supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate.

How Do I Take These Supplements?

Common dose is 1500mg for glucosamine sulfate and 1200mg for chondroitin sulfate, taken once daily. For body weight less than 100 pounds, the dose is typically lowered to 1000mg for glucosamine sulfate and 800mg for chondroitin sulfate.

Period of treatment has actually not yet been figured out.

Reported enhancement (e.g. Decrease in agonizing signs) differs from three weeks to as much as 8 weeks.

Some studies have shown ongoing enhancement of symptoms after oral intake was stopped.

Usually, if there is no discomfort reduction after two months, there is little chance of improvement.

Clients need to keep a journal of their signs when treatment starts to much better judge any modifications in pain level or joint movement, and this details must be shown their physician. (6 ).

Glucosamine Tied to Heart Advantages

Glucosamine, the dietary supplement widely utilized for arthritic pain, might minimize the threat for heart disease, scientists report.

Researchers took a look at 466,039 British men and women, ages 40 to 69, who were devoid of cardiovascular disease at the start of the research study. Individuals completed detailed health questionnaires that included info on the use of dietary supplements. Nearly 90,000 of them, or 19 percent, reported regular use of glucosamine. The research study, in BMJ, tracked the individuals’ health for approximately seven years.

Compared with those who did not utilize the supplement, glucosamine users had an 18 percent lower danger of coronary cardiovascular disease, and a 15 percent lower threat of any cardiovascular event. There was a weak association with a reduced risk for stroke.

The research study managed for diet, exercise, smoking cigarettes, disease history and other characteristics.

” This is good news for individuals who take these supplements,” said the senior author, Lu Qi, a professor of public health at Tulane University. But prior to recommending its usage, he included, “we actually require extra data from population research studies and even more, more strong information from medical trials.”.

The precise factor for the link is not known, however the scientists recommend that glucosamine might decrease swelling by lowering blood levels of C reactive protein, a sign of inflammation, or by imitating the result of a low-carbohydrate diet, which some studies have actually suggested is associated with a lower threat of heart disease.

The researchers keep in mind that effectiveness of glucosamine in patients with osteoarthritis and joint discomfort continues to be discussed. (7 ).

Natural Sources of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a natural substance discovered in healthy cartilage– the tough tissue that cushions joints– and particularly in the fluid around the joints.

For dietary supplements, glucosamine is collected from the shells of shellfish (like shrimp, lobster and crab) or made artificially in a lab.

There are no natural food sources of glucosamine other than shellfish shells, per the Mayo Center. However, there are many supplements offered. You will frequently see glucosamine offered in mix with chondroitin sulfate in a supplement kind. (8 ).


The Arthritis Structure lists an advised dose of 500 milligrams to 3 grams of glucosamine and chondroitin a day in divided dosages for a minimum of a month.


Believe it or not, as specified above there are no health food sources for glucosamine. Whereas a lot of glucosamine supplements are sourced from shells of shellfish (crabs, lobster, shrimp, and so on), there isn’t a list of veggies, fruits, or protein alternatives you can make a note of on your next grocery list. This is most likely another reason why glucosamine supplements are the 2nd most popular dietary supplement taken. In addition, this is why it’s so important to supplement glucosamine in the first place.

Flex: The Xyngular Service For Optimal Joint Health *

Laborious activity, manual labor, natural aging, and even being just a little obese can put a great deal of additional tension on our joints. In fact, being overweight by as little as 5 pounds might put an extra 15-30 pounds of additional force on your knees. To neutralize the problems of joint deterioration, to keep your body in motion, to keep you active and versatile, Flex assists oil active joints, nourishes and strengthens connective tissues, and helps reduce joint swelling connected with physical activity.

Flex consists of no soy, only needs to be taken once a day, consists of no stimulants like caffeine and green tea, includes zero nuts, utilizes vegetarian capsules, manufactured in the U.S., can be handled an empty stomach, is an excellent option for post-exercise joint healing, and can be taken with other Xyngular supplement. Our premium Flex formula of glucosamine and boswellia serrata are one of the most efficient duos on the market to support your joints and help reduce swelling typically related to workout. (9 ).

Is it safe?

Side-effects, which are generally mild and irregular, consist of:.

  • Indigestion
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headaches

If you dislike shellfish, you ought to make certain that you take the shellfish-free range.

You should likewise be cautious about taking glucosamine if you have diabetes. Glucosamine might increase your blood glucose level and it may imply that you require to adjust your treatment to make sure it carried on working. There are a number of reports of interaction in between glucosamine and anti-diabetic treatments. There are also some reports of possible interaction with chemotherapy drugs and drugs that lower blood cholesterol. (10 ).

What is the most crucial information I should learn about glucosamine?

Follow all directions on the product label and bundle. Inform each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use.

What should I talk about with my doctor prior to taking glucosamine?

You should not use this product if you are allergic to glucosamine.

Ask a physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider if it is safe for you to utilize this product if you have:.

  • Diabetes;
  • High cholesterol or triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood);
  • Cancer;
  • Liver disease;
  • Asthma or other breathing condition;
  • If you dislike shellfish; or
  • If you take a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven).
  • It is not known whether glucosamine will hurt an unborn infant. Do not use this item without medical recommendations if you are pregnant.
  • Glucosamine may enter breast milk and might damage a nursing child. Do not utilize this product without medical suggestions if you are breast-feeding a baby.
  • Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a kid without medical recommendations.

How should I take glucosamine?

When considering making use of natural supplements, look for the recommendations of your physician. You might also think about speaking with a professional who is trained in using herbal/health supplements.

If you pick to utilize glucosamine, utilize it as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider. Do not utilize more of this item than is recommended on the label.

Do not use different formulations of glucosamine at the same time without medical guidance. Utilizing various formulas together increases the danger of an overdose of glucosamine.

This medicine can trigger uncommon results with a blood sugar (sugar) test. Do not utilize this product without a physician’s suggestions if you are diabetic.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using glucosamine. You may need to stop utilizing the medicine for a short time.

It might take up to 8 weeks before your symptoms enhance. For finest results, keep utilizing glucosamine as directed.Call your medical professional if your signs do not improve, or if they worsen while utilizing glucosamine. Store at space temperature away from moisture and heat.

What happens if I miss a dosage?

Skip the missed out on dosage if it is nearly time for your next scheduled dosage. Do not utilize additional glucosamine to make up the missed dose.

What should I prevent while taking glucosamine?

Some glucosamine items also consist of manganese. Taking too much of this combination can cause a manganese overdose. Do not take more than directed on the medication label.

What other drugs will affect glucosamine?

Other drugs might interact with glucosamine, consisting of prescription and over the counter medications, vitamins, and organic items. Inform each of your healthcare suppliers about all medicines you utilize now and any medicine you begin or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

Speak with a licensed health care expert prior to using any herbal/health supplement. Whether you are treated by a medical doctor or a practitioner trained in the use of natural medicines/supplements, ensure all your healthcare providers learn about all of your medical conditions and treatments. (11 ).

Unique Precautions and Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t adequate reliable info to understand if glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Remain on the safe side and avoid usage.

Asthma: Glucosamine might make asthma worse. Till more is known, individuals with asthma need to be cautious about taking items which contain glucosamine.

Diabetes: There used to be some concern that glucosamine may increase blood glucose levels. But many research study reveals that glucosamine doesn’t increase blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes.

Glaucoma: Glucosamine might increase the pressure inside the eye and might worsen glaucoma. If you have glaucoma, speak with your healthcare provider before taking glucosamine.

High cholesterol: There used to be some issue that glucosamine may increase cholesterol levels. But many research shows that glucosamine doesn’t seem to increase cholesterol levels.

High blood pressure: There utilized to be some issue that glucosamine might increase blood pressure. But many research shows that glucosamine does not seem to increase high blood pressure.

Shellfish allergy: Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. If you have a shellfish allergic reaction, talk with your healthcare provider before using glucosamine.


Major Interaction

Do not take this combination.

Warfarin (Coumadin) engages with Glucosamine

Warfarin is utilized to slow blood clotting. Taking glucosamine with or without chondroitin increases the effects of warfarin. This can increase the danger for major bruising and bleeding. Do not take glucosamine if you are taking warfarin.

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this mix.

Medications for cancer (Topoisomerase II Inhibitors) communicates with Glucosamine

Some medications for cancer work by decreasing how fast cancer cells can copy themselves. Glucosamine might obstruct these medications from working. Taking glucosamine along with some medications for cancer may reduce the efficiency of these medications.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) communicates with Glucosamine

Taking glucosamine SULFATE and acetaminophen together may affect how well each works. But more details is required to know if this interaction is a huge issue.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with GLUCOSAMINE

Glucosamine might increase blood sugar levels. Taking glucosamine in addition to diabetes medications might decrease the impacts of these medications. Monitor your blood sugar level carefully. (12 ).


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