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Luteolin is a yellow crystalline flavonoid extensively present in plant households of pteridophyta, bryophyta, magnoliophyta, and pinophyta. It puts in a range of biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. [2]


Luteolin is the primary yellow color substance that is acquired from the plant reseda luteola, which has been used as a source of the color considering that a minimum of the first millennium b.c. Luteolin was first isolated in pure form, and named, in 1829 by the french chemist michel eugène chevreul. The luteolin empirical formula was figured out by the austrian chemists heinrich hlasiwetz and leopold pfaundler in 1864. In 1896, the english chemist arthur george perkin proposed the appropriate structure for luteolin. Perkin’s proposed structure for luteolin was validated in 1900 when the polish-swiss chemist stanislaw kostanecki (1860– 1910) and his students a. Różycki and j. Tambor manufactured luteolin. [3]

The best foods with luteolin, according to a dietary psychiatrist


Parsley is among dr. Naidoo’s favorite herbs, given that it’s a key source of micronutrients that promote neurological health, with luteolin (and folate) chief amongst them. “parsley can assist to improve mental physical fitness, brain health, energy levels, and overall cognition,” she discusses, including that she loves topping this herb on salads and loading up on parsley-rich chimichurri with grass-fed steak, grilled tofu, or cauliflower.


This purple leafy vegetable is another terrific source of luteolin, making it an excellent option to utilize as a base for salads or even to substitute for covers and tortillas. “its leaves resemble little boats, so i love to make healthy tacos by packing a radicchio leaf with other chopped veggies, avocado, and a clean protein, skilled with cumin and oregano and a burst of fresh squeezed lime,” dr. Naidoo shares. Taco tuesday with a side of brain-boosting, heart-healthy advantages, anybody?

Green bell peppers

Aside from being abundant in luteolin, green bell peppers likewise load numerous other bioactive compounds “that exhibit antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and immunostimulant residential or commercial properties, and antidiabetic, antitumoral and neuroprotective activities,” per a 2021 review in the medical journal molecules. Dr. Naidoo encourages eating green bell peppers either “raw and chopped into a vibrant salad, or grilled on vibrant skewers along with other seasonal veggies.” Benefit points go to those who add these colorful peppers to the radicchio tacos above.

Chicory greens

While i recognize with chicory thanks to new orleans– style coffee (which includes roasting, grinding, and brewing the root of the plant), dr. Naidoo says that their greens can be included into meals comparable to other leafy greens. Nevertheless, she cautions that they have a robust taste profile, so she provides a few suggestions to enjoy them without overwhelming your palate. “i recommend including chicory greens to soups or stews, or sautéing them in avocado oil for a tasty side dish,” she advises.


Whether you choose your celery raw, cooked, or juiced, this flexible vegetable can assist you boost your consumption of anti-inflammatory luteolin. Dr. Naidoo discusses it’s a staple in numerous healthy soup recipes (in fact, i’m slow-cooking a hearty chicken soup filled with chopped stalks of it today), and that it also pairs well with hummus or almond butter for a healthy, hydrating, and crispy treat.


As if we needed another reason to enjoy this autumn dietary staple, pumpkin also takes place to be a great source of luteolin. “i like roasting pumpkin and pureeing it into a warming soup with earthy spices like cinnamon and clove,” states dr. Naidoo. In the off season, you may also wish to snack on a handful of pumpkin seeds or incorporate them into any number of recipes, as they consist of small amounts of this inflammation-busting flavonoid.


Last on dr. Naidoo’s go-to list of luteolin foods is kohlrabi, a cruciferous veggie comparable in taste to broccoli stems. “kohlrabi is a preferred vegetable of mine; i like to clean it and cut up pieces to chew on,” she shares. You can likewise mix it into salads or enjoy it steamed, stir-fried, or grilled as part of bigger meals. [4]

Mechanism of flavonoid action

Luteolin inhibits several signaling steps consisting of pi3k, nfκb, pkcθ, stat3, and intracellular calcium ions. Flavonoids likewise inhibit mc degranulation by engaging with distinct vesicle-dependent snare complexes. It was recently reported that certain flavonoids prevented cytokine expression in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell by disrupting il-33 signaling.

Flavonoids can likewise inhibit acetylcholinesterase, which will increase acetylcholine and improve memory. It is of interest that luteolin more inhibits release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, while it activates receptors for the repressive neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (gaba) independent of gaba, suggesting it might also have a calming impact. In fact, benzodiazepines that act by activating gaba receptors were revealed to bind to mcs. [5]

Prospective advantages of luteolin

Animal and cell research study (lacking evidence)

No scientific proof supports making use of luteolin for any of the conditions noted in this area. Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research study, which ought to direct additional investigational efforts. Nevertheless, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as encouraging of any health advantage.

Remember to talk with a medical professional prior to taking luteolin supplements. They need to never be utilized as a replacement for medical treatment.

May protect the brain and nerves

Luteolin was able to safeguard the brain and boost nerve advancement in various animal and cell studies by:.

  • Reducing glutamate levels
  • Combating brain inflammation and oxidative tension
  • Supporting nerve cell development in the hippocampus
  • Preventing protein mutations

Alzheimer’s disease

Studies on rats with alzheimer’s disease have confirmed the anti-inflammatory and brain-protecting results of luteolin. It avoided alzheimer’s in animals by boosting their cognition, memory, and coordination.

Luteolin shields human brain cells versus free-radical damage and inflammatory proteins specific to this illness.


Luteolin may fight anxiety in mice by safeguarding the nerves in the hippocampus (brain center for feelings and memory) and activating gaba receptors.


In mice with seizures, luteolin was able to:.

  • Increase glutathione and decrease oxidative brain damage
  • Increase the useful proteins– bdnf and creb
  • Reverse cognitive disability
  • Prevent seizures and decrease their severity


Luteolin showed similar protective results in mice with various neurological conditions. As a result, it decreased the signs of:.

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Brain trauma
  • Numerous sclerosis

Animal research study suggests that luteolin may play a role in mental health, however human research study is doing not have.

Antimicrobial residential or commercial properties

Bacterial infections

The cell wall of gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides (lps), which can activate severe inflammation in our bodies and trigger various signs of a bacterial infection.

In research studies on mice, luteolin blocked lps-induced inflammation and protected the animals against fatal infections. It was able to increase survival by as much as 44%.

Luteolin prevented lps-induced eye infection in rats by hindering inflammatory particles (tnf-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin-e2). It was as reliable as a corticosteroid drug, prednisolone.

Cell studies have verified the capacity of luteolin to reverse the swelling set off by lps. It obstructed inflammatory enzymes such as inos and cox-2.

Luteolin prevented breast swelling (triggered by s. Aureus) and lung inflammation (caused by c. Pneumoniae and chlamydia) in mice.

Viral infections

In mice, luteolin inhibited the dispersing of epstein-barr infection, avoiding nose and throat cancer triggered by this infection. It also obstructed the hepatitis b infection, which might trigger severe liver damage.

In a cell research study, luteolin revealed potent activity versus japanese encephalitis infection (jev), the leading reason for viral brain swelling.

Luteolin has some antimicrobial and antiviral activity on direct contact and in mice.

Heart health

Cardiovascular diseases still top the list of death causes, declaring 1/4 of lives in the us.

In studies on rats and their isolated hearts, luteolin had the ability to:.

  • Strengthen heart cells and boost contractions
  • Support heart enzymes
  • Prevent tissue damage and cell death
  • Protect the cells against oxidative stress throughout a cardiac arrest

Luteolin reduced swelling and fat buildup in capillary of mice, safeguarding them versus atherosclerosis or plaque buildup.

Luteolin strengthened and supported the heart and avoided fat accumulation in capillary in rat and mouse research studies.

Diabetes complications

In diabetes, high glucose levels eventually damage capillary, triggering a wide variety of diabetes issues. Oxidative stress plays an essential role in these complications.

Luteolin relieved oxidative damage in diabetic rats, securing them versus:.

  • Diabetic encephalopathy (mental retardation)
  • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Diabetic cystopathy (bladder dysfunction)

In test tubes, the antioxidant effects of luteolin prevented diabetic osteopathy, or bone deterioration.

In diabetic rats, luteolin secured against issues of diabetes that damage the brain, nerves, and bladder.

Swelling and allergies

In mice, luteolin prevented inflammation and allergic action in the lungs and nose by preventing inflammatory cytokines: il-4, il-5, and il-13.

It can likewise support mast cells, which release histamine and trigger allergic reactions. Due to its anti-inflammatory homes, luteolin is being looked into as a prospective complementary treatment for several sclerosis.

Skin protection

Ever heard guidance to “consume your sunscreen”? Here’s how it works: when you consume them, antioxidants such as luteolin might secure your skin from the within and avoid uv-induced damage. Still, the exact same may not go for taking supplements.

Studies on mice have validated this result of luteolin. It reversed skin aging (by obstructing mmp-1 expression) and even prevented skin cancer.

Impacts on testosterone

In cell-based studies, luteolin served as an aromatase inhibitor. By blocking aromatase, it may minimize the conversion of male sex hormones to estrogens.

In one animal study, scientists have actually integrated luteolin with an aromatase inhibitor drug to lower its side effects in cancer treatment.

By obstructing aromatase, luteolin might likewise work as a testosterone booster. Still, clinical trials have not examined any of these results, so they stay in the domain of theory up until more research shows up.

Luteolin increased testosterone levels and prevented testicle diminishing in rats exposed to strong electro-magnetic (em) fields. Cellphones are one possible source of em field direct exposure.

Luteolin blocks aromatase in cell research studies, however it is uncertain whether it has this impact in people or perhaps in animals.

Cancer research study

The findings gone over listed below come from animal and cell-based research only. They ought to direct further research, however you shouldn’t analyze them as supportive of the actual anticancer impacts in human beings. Luteolin supplements can not prevent or deal with any type of cancer.

In research studies on mice and other lab animals, luteolin avoided the growth of:.

  • Prostate cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Liver cancer

Cells research studies have added pancreatic and brain cancer to the list of luteolin potential targets. According to this research, luteolin might even fight drug-resistant cancer cells and improve the results of chemotherapy without considerable adverse effects.

There is currently nowhere near sufficient proof to recommend luteolin for the avoidance or treatment of cancer, however research is continuous.

Limitations and cautions

Regardless of the appealing results of numerous animal and cell-based studies, you should not interpret them as supportive of any health advantage till more research study is done.

Average dietary consumption of luteolin can’t match the dosages used in initial medical research study, and the body rapidly breaks it down, which is another significant issue. [6]

Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin

Dietary plant flavonoids have been proposed to contribute to cancer prevention, neuroprotection, and cardiovascular health through their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. As a consequence, flavonoid supplements are aggressively marketed by the nutraceutical market for many functions, consisting of pediatric applications, in spite of insufficient understanding of their worth and disadvantages. We reveal that two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, are promiscuous endocrine disruptors. These flavonoids display progesterone villain activity advantageous in a breast cancer model but deleterious in an endometrial cancer design. Concurrently, luteolin possesses powerful estrogen agonist activity while quercetin is substantially less reliable. These outcomes highlight the promise and hazard of flavonoid nutraceuticals and suggest caution in supplements beyond levels achieved in a healthy, plant-rich diet. [7]

Kids with autism spectrum conditions, who improved with a luteolin-containing dietary solution, reveal reduced serum levels of tnf and il-6

Autism spectrum disorders (asds) have actually been associated with brain inflammation as indicated by microglia activation, in addition to brain expression and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 (il-6) and growth necrosis aspect (tnf). Here we report that serum levels of il-6 and tnf rose (61.95 ± 94.76 pg ml − 1 and 313.8 ± 444.3 pg ml − 1, respectively) in the same accomplice of patients with raised serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) and neurotensin (nt), while il-9, il-31 and il-33 were not various from controls. The elevated crh and nt levels did not change after treatment with a luteolin-containing dietary solution. However, the mean serum il-6 and tnf levels decreased considerably (p= 0.036 and p= 0.015, respectively) at the end of the treatment duration (26 weeks) as compared to levels at the start; these reductions were highly related to children whose habits enhanced the most after luteolin formula treatment. Our outcomes suggest that there stand out subgroups of kids within the asds that may be identifiable through serum levels of il-6 and tnf and that these cytokines might make up distinct prognostic markers for at least the advantageous result of luteolin formulation. [8]

Luteolin hinders cell cycle progression and causes apoptosis of breast cancer cells through downregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

Luteolin is a flavonoid, which has actually been thoroughly investigated due to its antitumor impacts; nevertheless, the hidden systems of its action remain mainly unknown. Today research study intended to investigate the function of luteolin in breast cancer (bc), and checked out how luteolin suppresses the development and induces the apoptosis of bc cells. The mts assay was utilized to figure out the anticancer activity of luteolin. Nest formation and transwell assays were carried out to assess the effects of luteolin on cell growth and intrusion. Cell cycle development and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. In addition, western blotting was carried out to evaluate cellular apoptosis and signaling paths elicited by luteolin. The present study exposed that the proliferation of the bc cell line mda‑mb‑231 was efficiently suppressed by luteolin in a dose‑dependent way. Furthermore, luteolin was revealed to increase apoptotic rates in bc cells. Dose‑dependent cell cycle arrest in s stage was observed following treatment with luteolin in mda‑mb‑231 cells. Mechanistically, luteolin lowered telomerase levels in a dose‑dependent way. In addition, luteolin inhibited phosphorylation of the nuclear factor‑κb inhibitor α and its target gene c‑myc, to reduce human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) expression, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Jointly, the outcomes of the present research study indicated that luteolin might hinder bc cell development by targeting htert, suggesting that the system of htert policy by luteolin may validate further study regarding its prospective as a healing target for bc treatment. [9]

The dietary flavonoid, luteolin, negatively affects neuronal differentiation

Luteolin, a polyphenolic plant flavonoid, has been attributed with various useful properties like anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. Luteolin has been reported earlier to be neuroprotective in designs of spinal cord injury and distressing brain injury and likewise induces neurite outgrowth in pc12 cells. However, the impact of luteolin on early differentiation, which might be important for its advantageous results, is unknown. In this report, we show that luteolin adversely impacts early differentiation of embryonic stem cells, hampering the development of embryoid bodies. At later phases of distinction, luteolin particularly inhibits neuronal distinction, where the expression of early neuronal markers is suppressed, whereas luteolin treatment does not prevent expression of meso- and endodermal markers. Even more, in an establishing zebrafish design, luteolin treatment leads to less numbers of mitotic cells in the brain. These specific impacts of luteolin on neuronal distinction could perhaps be because of its ability to inhibit the lysine acetyltransferase, p300, given that the structurally carefully related p300 non-inhibitor flavonoid, apigenin, does not inhibit neuronal distinction. These outcomes reveal that luteolin alarms neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells. [10]

Negative effects

Luteolin shows numerous beneficial anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, estrogen inhibition and neuro-protective markers.

This equates to assisting those struggling with persistent diseases, autism and even low testosterone.

Similarly crucial, these therapeutic effects are met little to no negative adverse effects.

Take home

Our very first question was how luteolin results levels of testosterone.

It has been established that luteolin secures the function of the testes by utilizing its anti-oxidant impacts.

It likewise contributes to hormone balance by preventing the aromatase enzymes from transforming valuable testosterone to estrogen.

Nevertheless, further research study in to luteolin has likewise uncovered its other qualities.

It has powerful anti-inflammatory results that can eliminate cells to treat cancer while having the ability to improve the condition of autism in kids.

All of this protective power from a variety of natural plant, nuts and fruit sources.

This benefit comes with little to no unwanted negative effects. [11]

Further adverse effects of luteolin

Luteolin is usually safe to consume. Side effects might take place in some people, particularly those who take the flavonoid in high dosages as a dietary supplement, but these are uncommon and poorly understood. In one mouse study, luteolin worsened chemical-induced colitis, but whether this applies to individuals stays to be seen.

A cell line research study recommends that luteolin (and quercetin) “display progesterone antagonist activity beneficial in a breast cancer design but unhealthy in an endometrial cancer model.” Nevertheless, this is simply a cell line research study, and it only suggests care with consuming luteolin via supplement, not from a plant-rich diet plan.

One openlabel pilot research study on kids with autism spectrum disorder (aud) suggests that luteolin might have both favorable and unfavorable results, as adaptive performance (how well an individual handles common needs in life and how independent they are) enhanced, however their irritation increased also.

Consult with your doctor prior to taking luteolin supplements. Like most dietary supplements, luteolin supplements have not gotten fda approval. Additionally, luteolin supplements might not be safe to take if you are taking high blood pressure medications, calcium channel blockers and particular other prescription drugs.

General rule: the safest method to experience any plant substance is straight from the natural source, not from a pill. [12]

Truths of luteolin

Luteolin is a chemical that is categorized as a citrus bioflavonoid. It is a yellow crystal in pure type, which is common for flavonoids. Luteolin has many usages as a health supplement due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory residential or commercial properties. These properties permit luteolin to scavenge reactive substances consisting of oxygen and nitrogen, which can cause cellular damage. Additional biological results of luteolin include the activation of the dopamine transporter.

Luteolin is produced by lots of plants, much of which are edible. Considerable dietary sources of luteolin include citrus fruits, particularly oranges. Broccoli, carrots, celery and green pepper are vegetables that likewise include luteolin. Herbs with luteolin consist of parsley, peppermint, rosemary and oregano. Peanut hulls are among the most crucial business sources of luteolin. These hulls are an affordable source considering that they’re a spin-off of processed peanuts.

Ethanol reflux is a common method of drawing out luteolin from peanut hulls. This process basically consists of blending the powdered hulls with 70 percent ethanol to get a liquid/solid ratio of 20:1. This mixture is then warmed at 85 degrees celsius for a minimum of 1.5 hours. The vapor that comes off the mix is high in luteolin, which can be more focused to a high level of pureness. [13]


Interactions in between dietary flavonoids apigenin or luteolin and chemotherapeutic drugs to potentiate anti-proliferative effect on human pancreatic cancer cells, in vitro

The goals were to examine the potential of dietary flavonoids apigenin (api) and luteolin (lut) to boost the anti-proliferative impacts of chemotherapeutic drugs on bxpc-3 human pancreatic cancer cells and to investigate the prospective molecular mechanism of action. Synchronised treatment or pretreatment (0, 6, 24 and 42 h) of flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs and various concentrations (0-50 μm) were evaluated using the mts cell expansion assay. Simultaneous treatment with either flavonoid (0,13, 25 or 50 μm) and chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-fu, 50 μm) or gemcitabine (gem, 10 μm) for 60 h led to less-than-additive effect (p<< 0.05). Pretreatment for 24 h with 13 μm of either api or lut, followed by gem for 36 h was optimum to hinder cell expansion. Pretreatment of cells with 11-19 μm of either flavonoid for 24 h led to 59-73% development inhibition when followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h). Lut (15 μm, 24 h) pretreatment followed by gem (10 μm, 36 h), considerably reduced protein expression of nuclear gsk-3β and nf-κb p65 and increased pro-apoptotic cytosolic cytochrome c. Pretreatment of human pancreatic cancer cells bxpc-3 with low concentrations of api or lut efficiently help in the anti-proliferative activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. [14]

Indications you might require luteolin

Poor neurological functions are generally the most significant indicators that you may require luteolin, specifically if you are over the age of 50. These functions consist of memory, learning and motor skills. Indications of oxidative stress such as skin lesions and wrinkles are a few of the more visible indications that you might need luteolin. Inflammatory conditions that affect the nerve system are a few of the chronic indications that luteolin might benefit you. Auto-immune disorders might also imply that you need additional luteolin. [15]

Why you should take luteolin with pea?

Luteolin is believed to work effectively with pea to fight neuroinflammation and oxidative tension.

This coadministration has an exceptional result than use of the molecules alone.

Pea and luteolin considerably decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis paths. They modulate cytokine release and activation of astrocytes and glial cells, which reduces oxidative stress. Pea and luteolin improve expression of neurotrophic aspects and boost regeneration of nerve cells.

Those that have suffered a stroke that were treated with co-pea/luteolin also had gains in cognitive function, muscle spasticity improvement and movement. [16]


The useful homes of luteolin have been understood for many years and are generally related to the reduction of swelling and the defense of the body from oxidative stress.

In fact, luteolin belongs of many herbs used in traditional chinese medicine to lower inflammation levels, deal with high blood pressure, and other conditions. [17]


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