Mahonia

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Mahonia aquifolium is the outcome of cross-fertilization and hybridization of M. repens (which is morphologically comparable to M. aquifolium) and M. pinnata. The Oregon Grape has actually always been found in the Pacific Northwest, however was introduced into Europe 1822 and has become a very successful intrusive species. Like numerous plants, the Oregon Grape produces blue berries that are consumed by generally birds which are dispersed to surrounding areas.Mahonia aquifolium Grapes: Thanks to James Gaither Although the primary way of reproduction is through the production of seeds, the Oregon Grape is also known to replicate by root sprouts and stem layers. Self pollination is another mode of recreation for M. aquifolium, and for many other plants as well. All plants though exhibit Alternation of Generations, and the Oregon Grape happens to be a dominate sporophyte since it is a plant that produces fruit. [2]

More about Mahonia

Synonyms: Berberis aquifolium, Berberis piperiana, Mahonia piperiana, Odostemon aquifolium.

Typical Names: Hollyleaved barberry.

Description: Outside it’s native range, has the capability to displace native plants. Medical uses of this plant includes skin diseases and noted for its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial homes.

Habit: Broadleaf evergreen, irregular branching with upright to spreading habits, shoots are thick and branch infrequently, stoloniferous and normally 3-6 ft high and 5 feet wide, slow growing.

Leaves: Alternate, pinnately compound, evergreen leaves, brochures connect straight to the rachis, brochures have spines, looks like English Holly, dark shiny green in color, new development emerges reddish or bronze, 6-12 in long and consists of 7-12 brochures. Evergreen foliage turns purple-bronze in the winter season.

Stems: Slim, stiff, typically upright, and normally without branches. The wood is whitish and fragile and has a considerable pith, almost cork-like look. Bark of young stems is green; older bark is rough and gray-brown with yellow inner bark.

Flowers: Brilliant yellow in color, ideal, found in a terminal (in some cases lateral) racemes. Flowers have the scent of honey. Flowers from April through early May.

Fruit and seeds: Fruits are held in clusters, modification from green to blue-black in late summer, specific fruits are 0.3 – 0.5″ in diameter.

Environment: Native to British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, northern California and northern Idaho. Found in damp, naturally rich, acidic, well-drained soils.

Reproduction: By seed.

Similar types: English Holly (Ilex aquifolium).

Monitoring and fast response: Hand pull or dig. [3]

Health Advantages Of Mahonia (Oregon Grapes)

Oregon grape is understood for its anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and antifungal homes and its extracts have been used to deal with physical grievances like dysentery, jaundice, peptic ulcers, and a range of skin conditions also. In addition, the extract is very useful for psoriasis, eczema, professional athlete’s foot, acne, and other fungal infections. It likewise eases swelling, itching, and irritation. Listed below are a few of the popular health benefits of using Oregon grapes.

1. Carry out natural anti-depressant

Extended unhappiness, stress and anxiety, the absence of appetite, sleeping disorders, or excessive drowsiness are some common signs of depression. The shortage of neurotransmitters like serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the brain leads to depression.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that decomposes these neurotransmitters. Research has given signs that berberine has the ability to inhibit MAO activity and eliminate symptoms of anxiety. By inhibiting MAO, berberine raises the concentration of essential neurotransmitters in the brain, providing a clear enhancement in the pharmacological treatment of anxiety.

2. Protect versus swellings

berberine present in Oregon grape helps to slow abnormal cell development in the skin and lowers inflammation. It can ease the itching triggered by skin problem such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and allergic rashes.

3. For much better Skin problem

When used on the skin, the Oregon grape has actually been found to combat specific skin irritations. Scientists have concluded that herbal remedies are often more effective on skin-related conditions than pharmaceuticals, and the Oregon grape’s power to assist fight psoriasis and atopic dermatitis would seem to support that claim.

4. Digestive Health

The bitterness of this herb also has a favorable impact on the digestion tract. It has a sedative result on the smooth muscles lining the gastrointestinal tract and encourages the circulation of bile, which loosens up waste in the gastrointestinal tract and helps avoid various problems, such as irregularity, stomach cramps, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, gallbladder disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.

5. Liver Health

Oregon grape root is well-known among herbalists for its capability to stimulate liver function, improve the circulation of bile, and for blood cleaning. Oregon grape root usages have actually traditionally included dealing with both liver blockage and transmittable conditions of both the stomach and intestines. Another benefit of Oregon grape root is its functioning as an antimicrobial.

6. Act as antifungal

Oregon grape berries act as antifungals. berberine found in Oregon grape is the potential to fight against a large range of germs and fungis. berberine has the ability to prevent the growth of numerous Candida albicans types, including Candida albicans.

There is likewise a sign that berberine eliminates Candida albicans yeast pressures that have ended up being resistant to pharmaceutical antifungals such as fluconazole. Scientist discovered that berberine was not only capable to prevent the development of the Candida albicans strains but of destruct the yeast cell until it might not make it through. It might also ruin the Candida albicans plasma membrane.

7. Perform anti-amoebocidic

berberine deals with human cells’ DNA to prevent amoebas from taking hold in the body. To consume this herb you can take it effectively as tinctures, glycerites, capsules, powder, oil, and salves. It’s extremely beneficial to take Oregon grape on a trip with you where the health is poor.

8. Bone Strengthener

Oregon grape root includes a number of alkaloids that offer it a very bitter taste that can take some getting utilized to if taken straight. However, the favorable benefits of these alkaloids far exceed the short-term pain that their bitter taste may trigger. In China, where Oregon grape root is also replaced for the herb Coptis, research study has shown that a person of the alkaloids the plant includes, berberine, can assist enhance bone marrow and assist chemotherapy and radiation clients in their recovery.

9. Battles against cancer

Oregon grape is wonderful to eliminate against cancer. Researches have revealed the relationship of berberine and the cancer-killing impact. Researchers have actually discovered that not just does berberine help with recovery liver cancer, but it likewise helps with particular lung and stomach cancers, blood cancers, certain skin cancers, and an aggressive (extremely metastatic) type of breast cancer.

Conventional usages and advantages of Mahonia/Oregon grape

  • Some Plateau Indian tribes utilized Oregon-grape to deal with dyspepsia.
  • Certain extracts from Mahonia aquifolium might work in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis.
  • Oregon grape was often used by a number of native North American Indian people to treat anorexia nervosa and debility.
  • Its current natural use is generally in the treatment of gastritis and basic digestion weakness, to promote the kidney and gallbladder function, and to decrease catarrhal issues.
  • Root and root bark are alterative, blood tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, laxative, and tonic.
  • It enhances food digestion and absorption and is taken internally in the treatment of psoriasis, syphilis, hemorrhages, stomach grievances, and impure blood conditions.
  • It has actually been used as a gargle for sore throats and as a wash for blurred or bloodshot eyes.
  • Fruit is an outstanding mild and safe laxative.
  • berberine, generally present in roots of Mahonia species, has marked anti-bacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic.
  • Considering that it is not considerably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of numerous enteric infections, particularly bacterial dysentery.
  • It needs to not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Licorice) because this nullifies the results of the berberine.
  • berberine has also revealed anti-tumor activity.
  • It is sometimes utilized in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and basic digestive problems.
  • Oregon grape can eliminate or reduce the growth of candida fungus and other fungal infections, staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Vibrio cholera, and other hazardous microorganisms.
  • Tincture of the herb is used typically as both oral and topical herbal solution to deal with eczema, acne, conjunctivitis, and herpes.
  • It is also utilized in the treatment of gall bladder illness, hemorrhages, and a couple of forms of cancer.
  • Native American people used Mahonia aquifolium as a treatment for fungal infections, skin problems, and dysentery.
  • Many tribal communities likewise utilized it for periodic fevers accompanied by diarrhea.
  • It was utilized by the Apache community as a gum solution.
  • It was likewise utilized for tuberculosis infections by the Nitinaht, Sanspoil, and Miwok individuals.
  • The Blackfoot community utilized it as a blood medicine, infant solution, and rheumatism.
  • It was thought about to be a reliable solution for liver and gallbladder ailments, intestinal infections, constipation, malaria, syphilis, and uterine hemorrhage.

Ayurvedic Health benefits of Oregon grape

Candidiasis: Take Oregon grape (Barberry) preparation. Drink 2-3 cups a day. OR have Barberry pills. Else you can have Barberry extract. Barberry Tincture. Take 25-50 drops 3 times a day. (Caution: Adults- Do not take after 7 days. Children- Do not take after 3 days. Prevent use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.).

Liver Tonic: Put One tablespoon Oregon grape root in one cup of boiling water. Steep for 5 minutes and filter. Take One tablespoon 3-4 times a day.

Giardiasis: Purchase Berberis Aquifolium– Mother Cast from a Homeopathic Shop. Take 10 drops of this cast in one glass of water, once a day after meals.

Acne: Take 1 tsp of sliced dried Oregon grape root, 1 tsp chopped Goldenseal root, and 1 tsp of powdered Lavender. Mix them well. Boil in a glass of water for 20 minutes. Cool. Wash your confront with it two times a day. OR: Add 1 tsp of powdered Oregon grape root and Goldenseal root in a few drops of hot water. Prepare a paste. Include 4-5 drops of Lavender Oil. Use on the afflicted location and let it dry. Rinse. Apply Aloe Vera gel if the skin gets dry.

Acne: Prepare a tincture of Oregon grape, Berberis Aristata, Coptis, and Golden Seal. Take 18-20 drops in 1/4 cup of water thrice a day approximately 2 weeks.

Blurred Vision: Take the leaves and the Flowers of Chickweed, Barberry, Marigold, Goldenseal, Oregon grape, Eyebright, Cornflowers. Prepare an infusion. Let it cool. Usage as an eyewash, 2-3 times a day.

Blurred Vision: Take the leaves and the Flowers of Eyebright, Goldenseal, Oregon grape, Chamomile, Marigold, Witch Hazel. Prepare an infusion. Utilize the infusion to moisten a soft cloth. Keep it over your eyelids, and rest for 10 minutes.

Acne: Take one tablespoon each of dried powdered Golden Seal root and Oregon Grape Root. Put these herbs in a cup of water and give a boil. Simmer for 15 minutes. Let it cool. Pressure and use it as a face wash.

Liver Illness: Prepare a powdered mixture of an equivalent quantity of Red clover, Fennel, Cleavers, Dandelion, Oregon grape root, Burdock root, Chickweed, and Parsley root. Boil 1 to 2 cups of water. Include one teaspoon of the powdered mixture in. Allow it to get cool down. Take in 1 cup of tea once a day prior to breakfast.

Culinary Uses

  • Small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and consist of big seeds, are included in smaller amounts in the traditional diets of Pacific Northwest aboriginal peoples, combined with Salal or another sweeter fruit.
  • They are sometimes utilized to make jelly, alone or blended with salal.
  • Oregon grape juice can be fermented to make red wine, comparable to European barberry red wine folk customs, although it needs an abnormally high amount of sugar.
  • Fruit can be consumed raw or prepared.
  • It has an acid taste, but it is rather good raw and is specifically great when contributed to a porridge or muesli.
  • Fruit can also be dried and stored for later use.
  • Raw flowers can also be utilized to make a lemonade-like drink.
  • Oregon grape makes a wonderful jelly.
  • Try brewing Oregon grape berry white wine or toss some berries into a pie or cobbler.
  • Oregon-grape juice can be fermented to make wine, comparable to European barberry white wine folk customs, although it needs an uncommonly high amount of sugar. [4]

Identifying Mahonia

We have 2 species of Mahonia in our region– high Oregon grape (M. aquifolia) grows to 8 feet high and dwarf or dull Oregon grape (M. nervosa) grows simply a couple of feet tall. Both are erect stiff branched shrubs with substance leaves that look like holly in leathery look and prickliness. The leaves are a shiny deep green on top and silvery below. Tall Oregon grape has 5-7 leaflets per leaf while dull Oregon grape (it’s anything but dull) has 9-19 leaflets. Both plants have rhizomous roots with a dazzling yellow pigment in the inner bark. Brilliant yellow flowers have 6 petals and are set up in clusters. Properly– Oregon grape is Oregon’s state flower.

Where it Grows: Oregon grapes are northwest perennials that are treasured for their appeal and heartiness. They are typically planted in city landscapes, parks, and along roadsides. Dwarf Oregon grape prefers dubious areas– typically second story Douglas fir forest. It forms a ground cover. Tall Oregon grape chooses sunnier areas in low to middle elevations. It grows in clusters in dry fields and forest margins.

When and How to Harvest: Deep blue berries are generally ripe from July to September. Tall Oregon grape berries are far more respected and grow on stems that are easy to get rid of. I pick them as a cluster then procedure private berries in the house.

As a starting herbalist I was instructed to dig up dwarf Oregon grape rhizomes to harvest the powerful medicinal yellow bark. This was a laborious procedure given that I needed to dig the whole plant, wash the roots, and after that carefully scrape the outer bark with a knife so that all of the yellow bark was gotten rid of from the inner white root. I felt guilty eliminating the plant. Years later, Skokomish Elder Bruce Miller revealed me how to peel the bark off the big stems of tall Oregon grape. He took me to a plant that he had actually been collecting from for over 30 years and it did not look damaged by the taking! I enthusiastically cut a couple of 8-foot stems and easily stripped them– no digging or cleaning required. Out of interest, I checked the berberine material (an alkaloid that has potent medical homes) on both the dwarf Oregon grape root and the tall Oregon grape stem bark with thin layer chromatography. The stem was a little greater in berberine. Needless to say, I have never ever gone back to digging the roots!

Strip the bark with a sharp knife when it is fresh. As it dries it gets surprisingly hard to scrape. If you are digging the rhizomes and roots, wash to eliminate dirt, then strip bigger ones with a knife. Entire smaller roots can be cut with pruning sheers or scissors. Dry in baskets or paper bags. They will last 1-2 years.

Mahonia Jelly

This is a basic jelly dish with liquid pectin. I have actually made it 3 years in a row and the recipe has actually held up consistently. Make sure to harvest the berries when they are deep blue. They will still be tart, but less so than unripe berries.

  • Step 6 cups of cleaned, washed Oregon grape berries.
  • Place berries in a cooking pot with 2 cups of water.
  • Bring to a boil, then deny and simmer for 15 minutes. Use a big spoon to mash the berries versus the side of the pot so the juice is launched.
  • Location a Foley food mill over another cooking pot. In 1 to 2 cup increments, turn the berries and juice through the food mill so that the seeds are separated. Eliminate the seeds from the mill prior to straining another batch.
  • Once finished, determine your juice/pulp. It needs to yield about 3 cups. If you have less you can add a little water to bring your volume to 3 cups.
  • Place a pot on the stovetop, add the juice, 1 ounce of pectin (about 1/2 of a liquid plan) and the juice of 1/2 lemon. Stir well and after that turn onto high heat, stirring regularly.
  • As soon as the mix is boiling, quickly include 3 cups of sugar, return to a rolling boil and boil for exactly 1 minute. Eliminate from the burner.
  • Location the jelly in clean hot canning containers, clean the top of the jars to remove any spillage, cover with lids, and can in a water bath for 10 minutes. If any lids do not seal, cool the jar of jelly and use within three weeks.

Mahonia/Oregon Grape Lavender Jelly (Low sugar)

I tried this dish for the first time this year and I like it much better than the high sugar jelly. I used Pomona’s Universal pectin. The lavender was a last-minute motivation considering that I spied it drying near by– the tastes compliment each other well! Toast with Oregon grape jelly and an egg has been my child Lucy’s “out of this world breakfast.”

  • Step 8 cups of clean, rinsed Oregon grape berries.
  • Location berries in a cooking pot with 2 cups of water.
  • Give a boil, deny and simmer for 15 minutes as explained above.
  • Process berries and juice through a Foley Food Mill as explained above.
  • Measure 4 cups of the juice/pulp.
  • Place the juice in a cooking pot, stir in 2 teaspoon of calcium water (included in Pomona’s pectin, and 2 tablespoons of fresh or dried lavender.
  • Measure 2 cups of honey and stir in 2 teaspoons of pectin.
  • Bring the juice to a boil.
  • Add the honey/pectin and stir vigorously for 1-2 minutes till the mix go back to a boil. Remove from heat.
  • Fill canning jars, seal, and can for 10 minutes as described above.
  • Oregon grape berries are a standard food for Northwest Native People and were often mixed with other sweeter berries like salal and made into pemmican cakes. A couple of years ago I found out about 2 hikers who got lost in the woods for over a week. The only edible food they knew was Oregon grape berries and they ate them in big amounts. They returned in fine shape.

Mahonia/ Oregon Grape Medicine

Oregon grape has a long history of use. Native people have valued it as a medicine anywhere it grows. Many people in the Pacific Northwest have used it as a blood tonic, an antimicrobial, a laxative, and to reduce stomach irritability.

Oregon grape has numerous intricate compounds but the one that herbalists concentrate on the most is an intense yellow alkaloid called berberine. berberine is a strong antimicrobial and liver stimulant that is discovered in other plants including barberry, coptis, greater celandine, and goldenseal. Although these plants are often used interchangeably, remember that each plant is more than the amount of its parts. Oregon grape has similar homes to the threatened and excessive used goldenseal plant, however there are important healing differences, including the reality that Oregon grape is not as tightening up to inflamed tissue.

Oregon grape can be utilized both externally and internally to fight bacterial infections. For injuries, you can either make a strong tea and soak the wound in it, or you can fill a dry sterile bandage or very clean cloth in the tea, then secure it on the wound. You can likewise power the dried root and sprinkle it directly on injuries. I have actually heard a number of herbalists report that they utilized Oregon grape effectively for intestinal tract infections. It is specific against salmonella, shigellosis and amebic dysentery.

The bitterness of Oregon grape is valuable in itself. As bitter compounds touch your taste buds on your tongue they send messages to your brain– triggering an increase in many digestive secretions consisting of saliva, hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and hormonal agents that stimulate the gall bladder and pancreas. This, of course, results in much better and more efficient food digestion down the gastrointestinal system. Attempt Oregon grape tea or cast before meals as a bitter tonic to prevent indigestion. Because it promotes digestive juices, it likewise acts as a laxative.

Oregon grape stimulates liver function. My esteemed natural instructor, Michael Moore, looked for physiological or constitutional patterns in individuals, then used plants to bring them back into a state of balance. Lots of Americans have a pattern of liver shortage. The liver is accountable for numerous functions consisting of:.

  • Breaking down metabolites and contaminants.
  • Producing bile, which helps break down fats and proteins, and serves as a laxative.
  • Dealing with other organs to balance blood glucose.
  • Making high quality foundation to support the skin and other tissue. [5]

Oregon grape Fascinating Truths

Also referred as Mahonia, Oregon grape is the state flower of Oregon. The scientific or botanic name aquifolium points out that the leaves of the plant are holly-like. They are derived from the Roman word aquifolium which indicates irritable leaved. [6]

What Are the Negative Effects of Oregon Grape?

Oregon grape is considered usually safe. It has no toxicity.5 However, a number of adverse effects have been reported from the use of Oregon grape. Along with these negative effects, similar to all organic supplements, is the possibility of an allergy.

Typical Negative Effects

The adverse effects determined in the Oregon grape and berberine prevail negative effects, including:.

  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Gas
  • Indigestion
  • Itching, burning, and irritation (at the website of topical cream administration)
  • Rash (particularly with topical usage)

Severe Negative Effects

There are not many documented severe negative effects of Oregon grape. An allergy to Oregon grape’s constituents could trigger anaphylaxis, a serious, deadly allergic reaction.

Taking in too much Oregon grape may have severe impacts. The constituent berberine may have severe impacts if taken in high quantities. There exists the possibility of jaundice if berberine is taken in high doses. Because Oregon grape consists of berberine, taking high dosages of Oregon grape may have the exact same results.

Dosage: How Much Mahonia/Oregon Grape Should I Take?

Constantly talk to a healthcare provider prior to taking a supplement to guarantee that the supplement and dosage are appropriate for your private requirements.

Couple of medical research studies about the proper dosage of Oregon grape have been finished. There is inadequate data to identify an efficient, safe dose.

There are still medical research studies on the oral usage of berberine, not particularly Oregon grape.

berberine is an active constituent in Oregon grape. A dose of 0.2 – 1.0 grams per day of berberine in either tablet or capsule types has been utilized for approximately 3 months.

What Occurs If I Take Excessive Mahonia/Oregon Grape?

Due to a lack of scientific information, a reliable, safe dose of Oregon grape has actually not been determined. There is no information on ceilings specific to Oregon grape.

There is research study regarding excessive use of berberine, a part within the Oregon grape. These studies are in the early stages, only having actually been performed in animals. The recognized effective dosage is not known for people.

It is safest to speak with your doctor about a dose of Oregon grape that would be best for you and your private requirements. [7]

Interactions

Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) Interaction Rating: Moderate Beware with this combination.Talk with your health supplier.

The body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) to eliminate it. Oregon grape might decrease how fast the body breaks down cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune). This might cause there to be too much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) in the body and possibly cause adverse effects.

Medications altered by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) Interaction Score: Moderate Beware with this combination.Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Oregon grape may reduce how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Oregon grape together with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the results and adverse effects of some medications. Before taking Oregon grape, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications altered by the liver consist of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others. [8]

Special Preventative Measures and Warnings

When taken by mouth: Mahonia is LIKELY SAFE when taken in the amounts discovered in foods. There isn’t enough reliable information to know if Mahonia is safe to utilize in medical amounts or what the negative effects might be.

When applied to the skin: Mahonia cream is perhaps SAFE for the majority of people when applied directly to the skin. It can cause some negative effects such as itching, burning, inflammation, and allergies. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to use Oregon grape if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Among the chemicals in Oregon grape, berberine, might cross the placenta and may trigger harm to the fetus. It can likewise be transferred to the infant through breast milk. Brain damage (kernicterus) has actually been reported in newborn infants exposed to berberine.

Children: It’s LIKELY UNSAFE to provide Mahonia to infants. The berberine in Mahonia can cause mental retardation (kernicterus) in newborns, particularly premature babies who have jaundice. Jaundice is a condition in which there is yellowing of the eyes and skin brought on by bile pigments in the blood. There isn’t adequate dependable information to know if Oregon grape is safe to give to older children. Stay on the safe side and avoid usage.

Diabetes: Mahonia can reduce blood sugar. Mahonia may cause blood sugar to end up being too low in individuals who are likewise taking antidiabetes medications. Usage with caution.

Low blood pressure: Mahonia can lower high blood pressure. Mahonia may increase the risk of blood pressure ending up being too low in people who already have low blood pressure. Usage with caution. [9]

The bottom line

Oregon grape is a blooming plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine.

Scientific research recommends it relieves signs of psoriasis and other skin problem, however it might also improve your mood, offer anti-bacterial activity, and ease IBS and heartburn.

Though usually safe, Oregon grape need to not be taken by children or pregnant or breastfeeding ladies.

If you have an interest in trying this herb, it might be best to start by using a topical treatment containing it, such as a skin lotion, and speak with a doctor prior to taking supplements or other oral formulas. [10]

References

  1. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mahonia
  2. http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/johnson_eri6/reproduction.htm
  3. http://www.misin.msu.edu/facts/detail/?id=224
  4. https://rxharun.com/mahonia-aquifolium-nutritional-value-health-benefits/#gsc.tab=0
  5. http://wildfoodsandmedicines.com/oregon-grape/
  6. https://www.fruitsinfo.com/oregon-grape.php
  7. https://www.verywellhealth.com/oregon-grape-benefits-4590368#toc-dosage-how-much-oregon-grape-should-i-take
  8. https://www.rxlist.com/oregon_grape/supplements.htm#Interactions
  9. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-493/oregon-grape
  10. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/oregon-grape#bottom-line
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