Maritime Pine

30 mins read

Maritime pine trees (pinus pinaster) grow in nations on the mediterranean sea. Its bark might be handy for asthma and improved leg circulation.

Maritime pine consists of chemicals that might enhance blood flow, promote the body immune system, lower swelling, prevent infections, and have antioxidant results. Maritime evergreen that grow in southwest france are utilized to make pycnogenol, the trademarked name for a particular maritime pine bark extract.

Maritime pine bark extract is utilized for asthma, high cholesterol, decrease in memory, adhd, and lots of other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support much of these usages. (2 ).


Pinus pinaster is a popular topic in ecology because of its troublesome growth and spread in south africa for the past 150 years after being imported into the region at the end of the 17th century (1685– 1693). It was discovered spreading in the cape peninsula by 1772. towards completion of the 18th century (1780 ), p. Pinaster was extensively planted, and at the start of the 19th century (1825– 1830), p. Pinaster was planted commercially as a lumber resource and for the forestry industry. The pine tree types gets into big areas and more particularly fynbos vegetation. Fynbos greenery is a fire-prone shrubland greenery that is discovered in the southern and southwest cape of south africa. It is discovered in higher abundance near to water courses. Dispersal, environment loss, and fecundity are all aspects that impact spread rate. The species prefers acidic soils with medium to high-density plant life, but it can also grow in fundamental soils and even in sandy and bad soils, where only couple of commercial types can grow. (3 ).


Maritime pine is an evergreen, coniferous species of tree that grows to mature heights of 100 feet (30 m), with a typically rather sinuous stem (straight in some areas, especially corsica and northwestern africa) and an usually open crown of regular, candelabra-like upswept branches, broadly ovoid-conic when young, becoming irregular and denser with age.

  • Bark is extremely thick, scaly or plated, fissured, patterned red-brown, blackish and enthusiast.
  • Branching is primarily uninodal, however sometimes multinodal on vigorous young trees.
  • Shoots are rough and stout, determining 0.28 to 0.6 inch (7 – 15 mm) thick, colored enthusiast to yellow-brown.
  • Foliar buds are big, cylindric to ovoid-acute, with red-brown scales having long totally free, revolute pointers, fringed with white hairs.
  • Adult leaves are retained for 1.5 to 3 years, measuring 4.8 to 10 inches (12 – 25 cm) long, borne in fascicles of two (in some cases 3), with a consistent 0.8 inch (2 cm) sheath. They are green to yellow-green in color, in some cases tinged glaucous, spreading out, very stout, about 0.08 to 0.088 inch (2 – 2.2 mm) thick, with serrulate margins, and great lines of stomata on all faces.
  • Juvenile leaves are highly glaucous, determining 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 – 6 cm) long, on slender 0.12 inch (3 mm) shoots, growing for the very first 2 to 5 years of the tree’s life.
  • Seed cones are a little deflexed on short stout stalks, symmetrical, tough, heavy, and ovoid-conic fit, each measuring 3.6 to 7.2 inches (9 – 18 cm) long, by 1.6 to 2.4 inches (4 – 6 cm) broad when closed, ripening abundant shiny chestnut-brown in april 2 years after pollination, and opening the same summer or approximately 10 years later, to 2.8 to 4.4 inches (7 – 11 cm) broad.
  • Seed scales are stout, thick, woody, and stiff; the apophysis is 0.4 to 0.64 inch (10 – 16 mm) long by 0.72 to 1.04 inches (18 – 26 mm) wide, with a rhomboid outline, and a strong raised transverse ridge; the stout umbo is dorsal, colored blackish gray, and measures 0.16 to 0.28 inch (4 – 7 mm) large and 0.12 inch (3 mm) high.
  • Seeds are glossy blackish brown above, matte-gray below. Each measures 0.28 to 0.44 inch (7 – 11 mm) by 0.2 inch (5 mm) with an 0.72 to 1 inch (18 – 25 mm) by 0.4 inch (10 mm) wing, that is buff in color with various straight dark brown streaks; it is quickly eliminated from the seed. (4 )

Environmental requirements

  1. Pinaster tolerates various climate conditions depending upon the subspecies. In general, it takes place naturally in warm temperate areas consisting of the mediterranean location, with an oceanic influence on climate, mainly in humid and sub-humid areas, where annual rainfall is greater than 600 mm. In spite of that, it is possible for trees to survive in areas with only 400 mm annual precipitation, providing that there suffices atmospheric wetness. In particular, the southern provenances (p. Pinaster subsp. Pinaster) might grow well in semi-arid conditions. Nevertheless, it will grow finest in areas with a mean yearly rainfall of 850 mm, with at least 75 mm in the duration between might and september. In its native range it just withstands a maximum of 100 consecutive days without rainfall, however when used in plantations in some areas it can endure an optimum of 150 days of dry spell. Maritime pine can not tolerate shade, and grows best at low and medium elevations.
  2. Pinaster may be found in both flat and mountainous sites in its native variety, but usually at low to moderate elevations. The subspecies atlantica is less tolerant of high altitude than the subspecies pinaster. It seems to choose siliceous soils with a coarse texture, particularly sandy soils, however it can tolerate other soil types. The subspecies pinaster can endure some calcareous soils, specifically when they have a coarse texture and are free-draining, whereas subsp. Atlantica, however, has a low tolerance to limestone soils, and displays a clear choice for sandy silicate soils, and has played a crucial function in the afforestation of loose dune along the western coast of the iberian peninsula especially in northern and central portugal. It has actually adjusted well to a substrate of silicate origin with low aggregation, poor in significant nutrients and raw material. Afforestation of these areas was undertaken during the late 1800s and very first half of the 1900s, and played a major function in dune combination and soil improvement. Likewise, the landes area of southwestern france, with sandy soils, has actually been thoroughly planted with p. Pinaster. In south africa, a study of four invasive pines discovered that soil ph was the most essential predictor for the distribution of separated trees, whereas the establishment of dense pine stands was mostly determined by fire history. (5 )


Maritime pine (pinus pinaster) is a fast-growing, medium-sized coniferous tree native to the western mediterranean sea. It has actually been cultivated and is now naturally found in other parts of central and southern europe and in north africa.

The wood is utilized for buildings, furniture and poles, while its resin is tapped to make rosin and turpentine. Other usages consist of stabilisation of dunes and slopes, as shelterbelts near seaside locations and for production of plant nursery substrates.

The light-demanding tree includes a number of different subspecies with high hereditary variety and is found in a wide eco-friendly range. Originally, the tree grew in warm and damp areas however, as a result of many years of growing and adaptation outside its natural range, it is now able to endure different conditions, including frost, summer drought and calcareous and poor soils. It grows in altitudes between sea level and 2000 m in pure or mixed stands. Maritime pine is considered invasive in the southern hemisphere. (6 ).

What is french maritime pine bark extract?

A nutritional supplement containing an extract obtained from the french maritime pine bark pinus pinaster, with prospective immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The french maritime pine bark extract consists of high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins have the ability to scavenge complimentary radicals, and for that reason may prevent cellular damage. This extract might likewise ameliorate the symptoms of lymphedema and enhance blood flow. It might likewise promote the immune system and have antioxidant impacts. (7 ).

What is it utilized for?

Traditional/ethnobotanical usages

In 1535, a french explorer is stated to have actually used tea made from the bark of the maritime pine to deal with scurvy amongst his sailors when his ship ended up being icebound. The extract has actually been used for anemia, inflammation, and heart/blood vessel conditions. Pine bark has been utilized as a food source in emergencies. Pine bark extract is available without a prescription in us health food stores and drug stores, as well as from online sources.

General utilizes

Pine bark extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions and has actually been studied for a vast array of conditions, consisting of asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, long-term blood flow problems, heart/blood vessel conditions, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction. However, numerous medical research studies have actually been small and poorly developed. (8 ).

Mechanism of action

The main constituents of pine bark extracts are procyanidins and phenolic acids. Pine bark extract functions as an antioxidant by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and reducing production of peroxides. It increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes by increasing the intracellular glutathione levels. In addition to increasing no production which causes vasodilation, pine bark extract likewise blocks the nf-kb activation promoted by growth necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and prevents production of adhesion proteins that trigger inflammation and atherosclerosis.

In vitro, pycnogenol induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and lowered neuronal apoptosis, a crucial feature of alzheimer’s illness, by decreasing complimentary radical generation. In animal research studies, cardioprotective results were also credited to totally free radical scavenging. (9 ).

Health benefits of pine bark extract

In southern france, the lovely and lush forests are home to a species of french evergreen (pinus pinaster) that contain special health-promoting residential or commercial properties. Its usage dates back to the 1500s when french explorer jacques cartier and his sailors battled with scurvy– frank vitamin c shortage– throughout their long sailing voyages from france to the new world. The story goes that first countries people shared their ancestral knowledge with cartier and utilized the local evergreen bark as a decoction (e.g. Herbal tea) to prevent scurvy.

Today, we know that pine bark is a great source of vitamin c (the cure for scurvy) as well as numerous phytochemicals, natural plant substances that support much better health. The “all-stars” of the group are proanthocyanidins, effective antioxidant compounds (more powerful than vitamin c and e) that provide a wealth of included health advantages. Let’s take a closer appearance below.

Increase antioxidant status

If you’re obese, out of shape, or in poor health, your body will produce an excess of free radical compounds that activate swelling throughout the body, harming your dna and compromising your health. Antioxidants snuff out these internal fires. Research has shown that pycnogenol– a trademarked formula of pine bark extract– is able to prevent and decrease this oxidative damage from complimentary radicals.ensuring you eat a diet plan high in vegetables and fruit is likewise important to lay the structure for robust antioxidant intake (coffee is another excellent source, just remember to ditch the sugar!).

Enhance erectile dysfunction (blood circulation)

Pine bark extract has a significant effect on nitric oxide (no) levels in the body, which are accountable for vasodilation and improving blood flow. A current research study discovered the mix of pine bark extract and arginine (an amino acid that likewise improves no production) were effective for improving mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.if you battle with low libido or erectile dysfunction, or suffer from hypertension, increasing no levels in the body is a reliable method for assisting to reverse these conditions.

Balance blood sugars

Pine bark extract may offer some added benefits for you if you fight with high blood sugar, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of 77 diabetic patients taking their prescription medications, in addition to 100mg of additional pycnogenol, found higher improvement in blood sugar control and cardiovascular health when pine bark extract was integrated with diabetic medications. (ensure to speak to your doctor prior to combining any supplements with current medications you’re taking.).

Battle common colds

There is absolutely nothing more frustrating than a bothersome cold; it stalls your productivity at work and in the gym. A research study of 146 individuals suffering from a common cold found supplementing with pycnogenol had the ability to lower the period (i.e. The number of days) and severity (i.e. The intensity of the signs you experience) of the colds. This is excellent news for maintaining your rate, even if you have actually got the sniffles.

Boost brain function

If you have actually been battling with forgetting small details– like where you put your cars and truck keys or what you’re expected to get for supper– you may be experiencing the early indications of age-related cognitive decrease. Stress, poor diet, and absence of sleep can all add to sub-optimal brain function, and while diet and exercise are fantastic for increasing healthy brain function, so too is pine bark extract. New research reveals that grownups over the age of 55, supplementing with pycnogenol over the course of one year, showed remarkable results in brain related jobs compared to placebo groups. The researchers believe the advantages come from pine bark extract’s antioxidant effects and ability to decrease oxidative tension (connected with bad diet plan, high stress, absence of workout, etc).

Safeguard skin from sun damage

Getting enough sun direct exposure and vitamin d is vital for your health and vitality. New research reveals that not getting enough sun direct exposure is as hazardous to your health as smoking.unfortunately; you don’t wish to sacrifice your skin along the way. The addition of additional pycnogenol has been revealed to offer defense from harmful uvb rays and may lower hyperpigmentation and enhance skin barrier function. If you invest a great deal of time in the sun, this can be a nice added skin support.

Lower swelling

Cytokines are a group of pro-inflammatory molecules that are launched when you get a cold or flu, struggle with a fall or injury (or train too hard in the health club!), or if you’re battling with a persistent health condition. Research reveals that pine bark extract is capable of lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines il-1 and il-6, responsible for a number of the negative results of chronic inflammation.

Pine bark extract can make a great addition to your nutritional toolbox for its powerful antioxidant assistance, along with its additional support for blood circulation, blood sugar level, swelling, resistance, brain function and skin assistance. Pycnogenol is a standardized supplement formula guaranteed to include at least 65-75% proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient that sets off all these benefits. Keep in mind, a good diet and routine workout ought to always be the foundation for building your finest health. Nevertheless, sometimes the body needs a little additional assistance and supplemental pycnogenol can go a long way to keeping your brain and body sharp this winter season. (10 ).

Other possible uses

Pine bark extracts are likewise being examined for a multitude of other uses in human, animal, and test-tube research studies. These include:.

  • Healthy aging
  • Wound recovery
  • Menopause bone loss
  • Alzheimer’s illness
  • Attention deficit disorder (adhd)
  • Skin health
  • Athletic efficiency
  • Enhanced cognition
  • Impotence

That said, there’s not yet enough proof to fully support these uses.


Pine bark extract is being studied as a therapeutic choice to treat various conditions. Its capabilities to reduce swelling and function as an antioxidant make it a strong candidate to deal with chronic illness. (11 ).

Side effects of maritime pine

There suffices research out there on pine bark extract to understand that it has a tendency to trigger some annoying (but usually moderate) negative effects. These might include:.

  • Dizziness
  • Stomach irritation
  • Irritability
  • Low energy
  • Headaches
  • Mouth sores
  • Foul breath

Exist any major drawbacks?

Thankful you asked. Because human research studies are doing not have, pine bark extract is * potentially safe * when taken by mouth in dosages of 50 to 450 milligrams day-to-day (depending on what it is being considered) for up to 1 year. That stated, it’s constantly a really good idea to talk with your physician prior to adding any new supplement to your regimen.

Keep in mind! Even if something is “natural” does not instantly imply it’s good for you or perhaps safe.

Another crucial fyi: some people might be at risk of potentially major negative effects from pine bark extract. You should not take the stuff.

if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. There’s not enough evidence to say that it’s for sure safe, so do not risk it.

You have an autoimmune condition. Considering that pine bark extract can stimulate the immune system, it may make your symptoms worse.

You take antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. The supplement could up your risk for bleeding if you’re taking these meds.

You have diabetes. It’s possible that pine bark extract might mess with your blood glucose. (12 ).

Pycnogenol vs. Pine bark extract

Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, and there is little to no difference in between the two in terms of composition or effects. You might use pine bark extract or pycnogenol to help deal with a variety of medical conditions, consisting of persistent venous deficiency, retinopathy or impotence. Before you take pycnogenol or pine bark extract, consult your medical professional to discuss the correct dosage and potential health dangers.


French marine pine bark extract is frequently sold under the name pycnogenol. It is utilized to prevent and deal with persistent venous insufficiency, along with a number of other medical conditions, according to the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. Pycnogenol essentially includes pine bark extract from the pinus maritima tree. The herbal remedy is often likewise called french maritime pine bark extract, pygenol or oligomeric proanthocyanidin (opc).


Pine bark extract and pycnogenol contain opcs, also called procyanidolic oligomers (pcos), which are likewise found in grape seed extract, reports the university of pittsburgh medical center (upmc). Opcs appear to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and antimicrobial actions and might act to stimulate your immune system, safeguard against atherosclerosis and avoid certain types of cancers, according to the sloan-kettering. Specifically, the opcs in pine bark extract and pycnogenol appear to prevent dripping in the blood vessels, and the flavonoids called catechin and taxifolin in the herb promote nitric oxide production in the body, which unwinds your capillary, discusses.


Both pine bark extract and the product pycnogenol have comparable uses, mainly for dealing with or preventing persistent venous deficiency, says. They may also help in dealing with hypertension, impotence, numerous inflammation-related conditions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, along with assistance in avoiding cancer, notes sloan-kettering. Pycnogenol and pine bark extract might assist treat easy bruising, varicose veins, edema, diabetes and diabetic neuropathy or retinopathy, hemorrhoids, premenstrual syndrome and traveler’s thrombosis, according to the upmc. You might take pine bark extract or pycnogenol to assist support weight reduction and improve night vision, as well as to treat lupus, menopausal symptoms, periodontal illness, asthma, allergies and liver cirrhosis. No conclusive scientific research supports using pycnogenol or pine bark extract to prevent or deal with any medical condition, nevertheless. (13 ).


The following doses have been studied in clinical research study:.

By mouth:

  • For allergies: 50 mg twice daily.
  • For asthma in kids: 1 mg per pound of body weight given up 2 divided dosages.
  • For poor flow: 45-360 mg daily, or 50-100 mg 3 times daily.
  • For illness of the retina, consisting of those related to diabetes: 50 mg three times daily.
  • For moderate high blood pressure: 200 mg of pycnogenol daily.
  • For improving exercise capacity in professional athletes: 200 mg daily. (14 )



The danger or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with abciximab.


The threat or seriousness of bleeding and thrombocytopenia can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with abrocitinib.


The danger or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when aceclofenac is integrated with maritime pine extract.


The threat or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when acemetacin is combined with maritime pine extract.


The threat or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with acenocoumarol.

Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid might increase the antiplatelet activities of maritime pine extract.


The danger or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when alclofenac is combined with maritime pine extract.


The threat or intensity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with aldesleukin.


The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is combined with alemtuzumab.


The risk or seriousness of bleeding can be increased when maritime pine extract is integrated with alteplase. (15 ).

Preventative measures

Before utilizing pine bark extract, inform your physician about your current list of medications, over the counter items (e.g. Vitamins, organic supplements, etc), allergies, pre-existing diseases, and existing health conditions (e.g. Pregnancy, upcoming surgery, and so on). Some health conditions may make you more vulnerable to the side-effects of the drug. Take as directed by your doctor or follow the instructions printed on the product insert. Dosage is based on your condition. Tell your physician if your condition continues or gets worse. Essential therapy points are listed below.

Pregnant, preparing to get pregnant or breastfeeding. (16 ).


Relating to the food market, pine bark extracts have been effectively used as antioxidants in the meat market and have been proposed as intriguing additives for the juice industry and songzhen noodles production. On the other hand, different pinus spp bark extracts have actually been tested versus a vast array of disorders -cancer, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, neuroprotective result and other oxidative stress and inflammatory-related illness. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggest an appealing future for pine as an adjuvant therapy. (17 ).


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