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Stinging nettle (urtica dioica) is a plant with pointed leaves and white to yellow-colored flowers. The root and above ground parts are utilized for diabetes.

The stinging nettle plant is typically 2-4 meters high. It consists of active ingredients that may reduce swelling and increase urination. The leaves are often eaten as a prepared vegetable.

Stinging nettle is most frequently used for diabetes and osteoarthritis. It is likewise sometimes used for urinary system infections (utis), kidney stones, bigger prostate, hay fever, and other conditions, but there is no good clinical proof to support these uses.

Don’t puzzle stinging nettle (urtica dioica) with white dead nettle (lamium album). [2]

History of nettle

Nettle use has actually been recorded as far back as the bronze age (3000 bce– 1200 bce), and it is still utilized in herbalism today. In between 58 and 45 bce, there are records of nettle’s stinging homes helping julius caesar’s soldiers in helping them stay awake and alert throughout the night. Aside from its usage in herbal supplements, nettle has actually likewise been popularly utilized as a fabric. Comparable to fabrics made from flax, nettle can be made into different textures, from silky to coarse. Nettle material likewise has the ability to be colored or bleached like cotton. It was a typical household fabric in scottish homes throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. And throughout the very first and second world wars, nettle fiber was utilized as a substitute for cotton yarns, when this product was not available. Because of its strong and durable fibers, nettle would be a great ally if you were ever stranded in a forest, as it can be used to make natural cordage. This natural cordage could then be utilized to help construct a shelter, start a fire, fashion clothing, make tools, and more, making it the perfect plant to have around in a survival situation. [3]


This typical hedgerow perennial grows to above 1.5 m and has extensive sneaking rooting stolons. The leaves are pointed with toothed edges. The stem is square in random sample and covered with stinging hairs. The small green male and female flowers are borne in tassels by various plants.

Secret functions

Young plant: it has longer and more triangular very first true leaves than annual nettle.

Plant: it is tall and upright, with leaves larger than those of little nettle. The leaves and stem are covered in stinging hairs.


Typical nettle might be confused with little nettle, however it has much shorter cotyledons than small nettle and the first true leaves of common nettle are longer and more triangular. [4]


Urtica dioica is considered to be belonging to europe, much of temperate asia and western north africa. It is abundant in northern europe and much of asia, usually found in the countryside. It is less prevalent in southern europe and north africa, where it is restricted by its requirement for wet soil, however is still typical. It has been presented to numerous other parts of the world. In north america, it is widely distributed in canada and the united states, where it is discovered in every province and state except for hawaii, and also can be discovered in northernmost mexico. It grows in abundance in the pacific northwest, specifically in places where annual rainfall is high. The european subspecies has actually been presented into australia, north america and south america.

In europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and structures. The presence of nettles might show the website of a long-abandoned structure, and can also suggest soil fertility. Human and animal waste may be responsible for raised levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the soil, offering an ideal environment for nettles. [5]

Physiology and phenology

Pollard and briggs (1984b) checked out the structure and function of the stinging hairs of u. Dioica subsp. Dioica. When brushing contact is made with a hair the swollen tip is broken off obliquely along a more or less predetermined fracture line, leaving a sharp point (” looking like the diagonal idea of a hypodermic needle”). This point permeates the skin and the subsequent pressure squeezes the base of the stinging cell which hence actively injects the contaminant contained within it. Pollard and briggs (1984b) explain that regardless of a lot of biochemical and pharmacological research over the past 100 years, the accurate nature of the toxin is not fully understood, although it is understood to contain serotonin and acetylcholine (connor, 1977).

Dioica is a long-day plant and might need as much as 16 hours daylength for blooming (bond et al., 2007). Blooming (in britain) occurs from late may to early august and viable seed is shed or might stay on the dead stems until december or january. According to the kew seed details database (2015 ), tested seeds sprouted easily after stratification at 5oc or 6oc for 8 weeks before being moved to rotating temperatures of 25/10oc, 8/16oc, 33/19oc or 12/12oc. The seeds of north american plants of u. Dioica subsp. Gracilis apparently require no vernalization and fresh seed will sprout in 5 to 10 days.

With regard to plant development, brand-new roots are produced in late summertime or fall either from old root product or from the base of aerial shoots (greig-smith, 1948). They continue to grow at or simply below the soil surface up until the death of the aerial shoots when they turn upwards to form brand-new shoots. Young rhizomes are reddish in colour and have stinging hairs and scale leaves. Older rhizomes and roots have a yellow corky layer therefore appear yellow in colour. The roots branch profusely and form lots of great laterals.

Greig-smith (1948) states that brand-new aerial shoots of u. Dioica continue growth till about 15 cm high and then survive the winter (in britain), resuming growth the following spring. Flowering starts in late may or june. In canada, according to bassett et al. (1977 ), the north american subspecies is killed back to ground level by frost each year but its roots make it through and grow once again in spring.

Taylor (2009) cites work by gunk and hunt (1975) in stating that although u. Dioica has a small seed mass its competitive technique includes an extremely high relative growth rate, which accompanies tall stature, comprehensive lateral spread and the propensity to build up leaf litter, characteristics that assist in the special occupation of fertile sites.

Wheeler (1981 ), mentioned in taylor (2009 ), compared the growth of forest and pasture clones of u. Dioica subsp. Dioica at different light levels. Plants shaded by deciduous woodland grew much better in their light routine of 37.3% of direct event light from november to april and of 23.8% from might to october than did pasture clones in 84.3% of direct event light in respect of height, internode length and shoot dry mass. However the pasture clones produced 82% more seeds than the forest ones. When plants were grown in pots at 25%, 35%, 67% and 100% (complete greenhouse light) irradiance, there was no considerable distinction between total dry mass of plants.

Taylor (2009) reported that plants wilted under really dry conditions, but they might be able to ‘harden’ to drought to some extent. The very same author states that the plant can not withstand flooding of its roots and roots for extended periods. Greig-smith (1948) observed that the shoot tips are not affected by spring frosts but might pass away back after early fall frosts. U. Dioica does not continue saline locations (bassett et al. (1977 ). [6]


Stinging nettle, or urtica dioica, is a common plant that grows in the united states, canada, and europe. It mostly grows in moist, fertile soil.

However, individuals might describe numerous plants in the urtica household as stinging nettle. These include:.

  1. Urtica galeopsifolia: this has no stinging hairs, and people frequently describe it as the stingless nettle.
  2. Urtica gansuensis: this type of nettle has stinging hairs and is local to eastern asia.
  3. Urtica gracilis: individuals might refer to this as the american stinging nettle.
  4. Urtica afghanica: this may have stinging hairs or are hairless, and it is native to central and southwestern asia. [7]

Advantages of nettle

Here are 6 evidence-based benefits of stinging nettle.

Consists of numerous nutrients

Stinging nettle’s leaves and root offer a wide variety of nutrients, including:.

  • Vitamins: vitamins a, c and k, in addition to a number of b vitamins
  • Minerals: calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium
  • Fats: linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid
  • Amino acids: all of the vital amino acids
  • Polyphenols: kaempferol, quercetin, caffeic acid, coumarins and other flavonoids
  • Pigments: beta-carotene, lutein, luteoxanthin and other carotenoids

What’s more, a lot of these nutrients serve as antioxidants inside your body.

Anti-oxidants are particles that help protect your cells versus damage from free radicals. Damage brought on by complimentary radicals is linked to aging, along with cancer and other hazardous diseases.

Studies show that stinging nettle extract can raise blood antioxidant levels.


Stinging nettle offers a variety of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, polyphenols and pigments a lot of which likewise act as antioxidants inside your body.

May decrease swelling

Swelling is your body’s way of recovery itself and battling infections. However, persistent inflammation can inflict considerable harm. Stinging nettle harbors a variety of compounds that may minimize inflammation.

In animal and test-tube research studies, stinging nettle lowered levels of several inflammatory hormones by hindering their production.

In human studies, using a stinging nettle cream or consuming stinging nettle products appears to ease inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis.

For example, in one 27-person study, using a stinging nettle cream onto arthritis-affected locations considerably lowered pain, compared to a placebo treatment.

In another research study, taking a supplement that contained stinging nettle extract significantly decreased arthritis pain. Furthermore, participants felt they might minimize their dose of anti-inflammatory painkiller because of this pill.

That stated, research study is insufficient to advise stinging nettle as an anti-inflammatory treatment. More human studies are needed.


Stinging nettle may help reduce inflammation, which in turn could help inflammatory.

Conditions, including arthritis, but more research is needed.

May treat enlarged prostate signs

Approximately 50% of males aged 51 and older have an enlarged prostate gland.

A bigger prostate is commonly called benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph). Scientists aren’t sure what triggers bph, but it can result in considerable pain throughout urination.

Interestingly, a few research studies recommend that stinging nettle may help deal with bph.

Animal research reveals that this effective plant may prevent the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone– a more effective form of testosterone.

Stopping this conversion can help in reducing prostate size.

Studies in individuals with bph show that stinging nettle extracts help treat short- and long-lasting urination problems– without adverse effects.

However, it’s uncertain how effective stinging nettle is compared to standard treatments.


Stinging nettle might help reduce prostate size and deal with signs of a bigger prostate gland in males with bph.

May deal with hay fever

Hay fever is an allergic reaction that involves swelling in the lining of your nose. Stinging nettle is viewed as a promising natural treatment for hay fever.

Test-tube research study reveals that stinging nettle extracts can inhibit inflammation that can set off seasonal allergic reactions.

This consists of blocking histamine receptors and stopping immune cells from releasing chemicals that activate allergy signs.

Nevertheless, human research studies keep in mind that stinging nettle is equal to or only slightly better at dealing with hay fever than a placebo.

While this plant may prove a promising natural remedy for hay fever symptoms, more long-term human studies are needed.


Stinging nettle might lower hay fever signs. Yet, some research shows that it might not be far more efficient than a placebo. More research studies are required on stinging nettle’s impacts on hay fever.

May lower high blood pressure

Approximately one in 3 american grownups has hypertension.

Hypertension is a serious health issue since it puts you at risk of cardiovascular disease and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Stinging nettle was generally used to treat hypertension. Animal and test-tube studies show that it might assist lower high blood pressure in a number of methods.

For one, it may stimulate nitric oxide production, which serves as a vasodilator. Vasodilators unwind the muscles of your blood vessels, helping them expand.

In addition, stinging nettle has compounds that may act as calcium channel blockers, which unwind your heart by decreasing the force of contractions.

In animal research studies, stinging nettle has been shown to lower blood pressure levels while raising the heart’s antioxidant defenses.

Nevertheless, stinging nettle’s impacts on high blood pressure in humans are still unclear. Extra human research studies are required before suggestions can be made.


Stinging nettle may assist lower blood pressure by enabling your capillary to relax and decreasing the force of your heart’s contractions. Yet, more human research studies are needed to validate these results.

May aid blood glucose control

Both human and animal research studies connect stinging nettle to lower blood sugar level levels.

In fact, this plant consists of substances that may mimic the results of insulin.

In a three-month study in 46 individuals, taking 500 mg of stinging nettle extract 3 times everyday substantially decreased blood sugar level levels compared to a placebo.

Regardless of appealing findings, there are still far too few human research studies on stinging nettle and blood sugar control. More research is essential.


While stinging nettle might help lower blood sugar level levels, more human research studies are important before recommendations can be made.

Other prospective benefits

Stinging nettle may offer other potential health advantages, including:.

Decreased bleeding: medications consisting of stinging nettle extract have been found to minimize extreme.

Bleeding, especially after surgical treatment.

Liver health: nettle’s antioxidant homes might safeguard your liver against damage by contaminants, heavy.

Metals and swelling.

Natural diuretic: this plant might help your body shed excess salt and water, which in turn could lower blood pressure briefly. Remember that these findings are from animal research studies.

Wound and burn healing: using stinging nettle creams may support wound healing, including burn wounds.


Stinging nettle’s other possible health benefits consist of lessened bleeding, improved liver health and wound recovery. [8]

How to use?

Nettle are excellent as tea, in soup as a fresh veggie like spinach, as a pot herb, as a vegetable compliment to dishes and while some nutrient material is lost with cooking there is still a good level left– don’t over-cook though, as most vegetable nutrients are lessened by long cooking durations. The dried item can be added to flour in bread, pasta, and noodle dough as a protein-rich supplement for vegans and vegetarians. In the spring i regularly pick a great sized handful of fresh tops of nettles and add a pint of boiling water and simply let the leaves remain in the infusion water. Take the beverage warm or cold with a piece of lemon and to fizz it up utilize a 1/3 of a glass of the instilled water with a sparkling mineral water and either a little lemon juice or a slice of lemon or lime and some ice.

Nettle tea can be purchased in most food stores and health stores nevertheless if you have a fresh source this will be the most wonderful and healthful. [9]

How to brew nettle tea?

Merely add water to your collected nettle leaves and heat to a near boil. Usage about two cups of water for a cup of leaves; there’s no requirement to determine. You can make the tea more powerful by soaking longer, or weaker by adding more water. When the water is near boiling, minimize heat and simmer for a couple minutes. Put through a small strainer and the tea is ready to consume. Some individuals prefer a smidgen of sugar added to the tea, however i discover the taste is simply great with no ingredients.

The prepared leaves can also be consumed with a little butter melted over leading, or they can be contributed to soups and stews. If you are going to consume the leaves, taste a small bit first to be sure the sting has actually left.

A word of caution

Any brand-new compound needs to be introduced gradually to your body. A cup or more of nettle tea per day suffices to delight in the benefits which nettles offer. Those new to nettles must start out with percentages.

If you will be bringing kids along while gathering nettles, which is a good learning experience for them, make sure to take sufficient preventative measures to keep them from being stung by the leaves. Long clothes and gloves need to be used at all times when managing nettles. Once they are cooked or brewed into tea, they lose their sting.

So if you’re aiming to shake the winter season blahs and reinvigorate yourself for spring, an easy restorative elixir might be as close as a nearby weed patch. And given that nettles grow in the exact same area every year, it only takes one discovery to bring you an all set supply of nature’s miracle tonic for spring. [10]

Nettle soup


  • 1/2 large shopping bag of fresh nettle tops
  • Salt
  • 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon butter
  • 1/2 cup sliced shallots
  • 1/2 cup sliced celery
  • 1 pound yukon gold or russet potatoes, peeled and sliced
  • 4 cups chicken stock, homemade or store-bought
  • 1 to 2 cups water
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 teaspoon dried thyme (or a couple sprigs of fresh thyme)
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons lemon juice
  • 2 to 3 tablespoons heavy light whipping cream


Blanch the nettles:

Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Prepare a big bowl of ice water. Using protective gloves, transfer the nettle tops into the boiling water. Blanch for 2 minutes.

Usage tongs to raise the wilted blanched nettles out of the pot and transfer to the bowl of ice water to shock them. Strain in a colander.

Cut away and dispose of any big comes from the nettles. (this need to be easier to do now that the nettle stingers have actually lost their sting due to the blanching.).

You should have 3 to 4 cups of blanched tender nettle tops and leaves for this dish. Any blanched nettles not utilized at this point can be frozen for future usage.

Sauté the shallots and celery:

In a 6-quart soup pot, heat the olive oil and butter on medium heat. Add the sliced shallots and celery and cook up until softened, about 5 minutes.

Add the potatoes, stock, bay leaf, and thyme:

Add the chopped potatoes, the chicken stock, bay leaf, and thyme. If utilizing saltless or low sodium stock, include one teaspoon of salt. Give a simmer and simmer for 5 minutes.

Chop the blanched nettles, add to the soup pot, and simmer

Approximately slice the blanched nettles. Include 3 to 4 cups of the sliced blanched nettles to the pot. Include enough water to simply cover the nettles and potatoes, 1 to 2 cups. Return to a simmer and simmer for 15 minutes or till the potatoes are soft and the nettles tender.

Purée the soup:

Eliminate the bay leaves (and thyme sprigs if utilizing) from the pot. Utilizing an immersion blender or working in batches with a standing blender, purée. Go back to the pot and remove the heat.

Adjust the flavorings and serve:

Add salt to taste. Depending on the saltiness of the stock you are using, you might require to include at least a teaspoon or more to the soup. Add 1/2 teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper. Include lemon juice. Right before serving, swirl in the cream. Change flavorings to taste. Sprinkle with black pepper and garnish with a sprig of fresh mint to serve. [11]

Nettle pasta

You can use any of your preferred pasta recipes and include the nettle.


  • 3 cups flour
  • 2 or 3 large handfuls of fresh nettle tops (collected from plants no greater than 18″ tall and only taking the top 6″)
  • 2-3 eggs


  1. Bring nettle and water to a boil. Simmer for 15-20 minutes.
  2. Stress nettles, retaining the water– you’ll utilize that water to boil your pasta in later.
  3. Puree nettles and the eggs using immersion mixer.
  4. Make a well out of the flour in a blending bowl and add the nettles and eggs mixture. Mix completely up until you have a smooth dough ball. (you may need to add extra flour if the mixture is wet or the maintained nettle water if the mixture is dry.)
  5. Put the ball of dough in a bowl and let it mean 15 minutes.
  6. Present about 1/3 of the dough at a time into a ball.
  7. Cover the ball of dough with wet towel and let reserve for 10-15 minutes.
  8. Roll 1/3 of the dough at a time on a floured surface area as thin as you would like– can be really thin or thicker if you like thick noodles.
  9. Cut into any length strip– as long or brief as you desire, or in squares if you want to make ravioli. Hang them, if possible, for about 10 minutes. We have a pasta wall mount, but you can use a tidy plastic wall mount.
  10. Bring the saved nettle water to a boil once again and put your green noodles into the boiling water. Cook for 3– 8 minutes depending on the density. Inspect them for doneness. [12]

Nettle syrup dish for a healthy radiance

This strengthening syrup nurtures the blood, skin, and hair. It is great to use during times of stress, after menstruation or a prolonged disease, while breastfeeding, or at any time the body needs an additional increase (for a ready-made variation, try the strong female syrup offered in our shop). Talk to your physician about this formula if you have excess iron shops, liver or kidney disease, coagulation issues, if you take blood-thinners, or if you are pregnant.


  • 1 pound. Fresh nettle tops (or 4 oz. Dry)
  • 2 oz. Dried dang gui root
  • 2 oz. Dried milky oat tops (or 1/4 lb. Fresh)
  • 2 oz. Dried burdock root (or 1/4 pound. Fresh, roughly 1 large root)
  • 1 oz. Dried horsetail (or 2 oz. Fresh)
  • 2 oz. Prunes and/or raisins
  • 1 gallon (4 l) water
  • 1 cup blackstrap molasses
  • ( optional) ~ 2 tbsp. Citric acid


  1. Integrate herbs, dried fruit, and water in a non-reactive (stainless steel or ceramic-lined) pot and bring to a boil.
  2. Lower heat and simmer on low heat a minimum of two hours, or till water level has dropped to about half.
  3. Eliminate from heat and let cool. Strain out herbs, pressing through cheesecloth to record all the liquid.
  4. While liquid is still warm (not hot), add molasses and stir until dissolved.
  5. Transfer to glass container and store in fridge for as much as 1 month.
  6. ( optional): to extend shelf life, include a tablespoon per quart of citric acid, or maintain with alcohol. To do this, measure last syrup volume and add 50% of that volume of your favorite basic abv alcohol (brandy or vodka works well), to develop a syrup that is 20% pure ethanol by volume. For example, if actions 1-4 resulted in 2 liters of syrup, you would require to add 1 liter of 40-proof alcohol to approach a 20% alcohol syrup. [13]

Nettle negative effects

Get emergency medical aid if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; challenging breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Although not all side effects are known, nettle is believed to be potentially safe when considered a brief period of time (no longer than 6 months).

Common negative effects of nettle may consist of:.

  • Sweating;
  • Skin irritation; or
  • Stomach pain. [14]

How to take?

120mg of stinging nettle (root) taken 3 times a day (amounting to 360mg) is associated with benefit in benign prostate hyperplasia.

For allergies, the studied dosage is 300 mg two times a day of freeze-dried nettle leaf.

The proof is much better for nettle root and prostatic enlargement than for nettle leaf and allergic reactions. [15]

Possible interactions

Antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (blood slimmers)

Stinging nettle may affect the blood’s capability to embolisms, and could interfere with blood-thinning drugs, consisting of:.

  • Warfarin (coumadin)
  • Clopidogrel (plavix)
  • Aspirin

Drugs for high blood pressure

Stinging nettle might lower blood pressure, so it could reinforce the impacts of these drugs:.

  • Ace inhibitors: captopril (capoten), elaropril (vasotec), lisinopril (zestril), fosinopril (monopril)
  • Beta-blockers: atenolol (tenormin), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), propranolol (induran)
  • Calcium channel blockers: nifedipine (procardia), amlodipine (norvasc), verapamil (calan, isoptin)

Diuretics (water tablets)

Because stinging nettle can act as a diuretic, it can increase the impacts of these drugs, raising the danger of dehydration:.

  • Furosemide (lasix)
  • Hydrocholorothiazide

Drugs for diabetes

Stinging nettle might lower blood sugar, so it could strengthen the impacts of these drugs, raising the threat of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose).


Stinging nettle might have a diuretic result and may lower the body’s ability to remove this drug.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

In a clinical research study of patients with acute arthritis, stewed stinging nettle leaves boosted the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac, an nsaid. Although this effect can lower pain, speak to your medical professional prior to taking or utilizing stinging nettle if you also take nsaids. [16]

What are cautions and precautions for nettle?


This medication consists of nettle. Do not take stinging nettle or urtica dioica if you are allergic to nettle or any ingredients consisted of in this drug.

Stay out of reach of kids. In case of overdose, get medical help or get in touch with a poison nerve center right away.


Diabetes, impaired cardiac or kidney function. [17]


Nettle (urtica dioica l.) is herbaceous perennial that has been utilized for centuries in herbal remedies. More recently, nettle extracts have actually also been used in cosmetics because of the many benefits of their topical application for skin health. Their possible anti-aging action is of specific interest and is mostly ascribed to their antioxidant capability. Here, utilizing an experimental design approach and a clustering analysis, we linked the phytochemical structure of nettle extracts to their biological activities. This approach verified the antioxidant capability of nettle extracts as well as offering the first evidence of another mechanism for their anti-aging potential involving the inhibition of enzyme activities, such as elastase and collagenase. We attributed these inhibitory impacts to ursolic acid and quercetin present in the nettle extracts. Our results likewise demonstrated the possibility of drawing out ursolic acid, quercetin and other phenolic compounds differentially to get an extract with a strong antioxidant capacity and anti-aging activities toward both elastase and collagenase. This could be of specific interest for cosmetic applications of nettle extracts. [18]


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