Probiotics

40 mins read

Probiotics are foods or supplements that contain live microorganisms meant to maintain or enhance the “great” bacteria (regular microflora) in the body. Prebiotics are foods (typically high-fiber foods) that serve as food for human microflora. Prebiotics are used with the intent of improving the balance of these microbes.

Probiotics are in foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. Prebiotics are in foods such as whole grains, bananas, greens, onions, garlic, soybeans and artichokes. In addition, probiotics and Prebiotics are added to some foods and available as dietary supplements.

Research is continuous into the relationship of the gut microflora to disease. The health benefits of currently readily available probiotics and Prebiotics have actually not been conclusively proved.

However, negative effects are uncommon, and the majority of healthy grownups can safely add foods which contain Prebiotics and probiotics to their diets. Future research study may cause sophisticated probiotics with greater capacity to improve health.

If you’re considering taking supplements, contact your physician to be sure they’re right for you [2]

Introduction

The term probiotic is originated from Greek and literally means “for life.” It was first coined in 1965 by Lilley and Stillwell to explain compounds produced by one microbe that promote the development of another In 1974, Parker customized this definition to “… organisms and substances which add to intestinal microbial balance”. The existing meaning of probiotics by Food and Farming Company of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Company (WHO) is “live microorganisms which when administered in appropriate quantities provide a health benefit to the host”. Probiotic organisms require particular characteristics to allow them to exert optimum healing results. Of these attributes, there are some that are considered practically important for a probiotic to have restorative impacts, consisting of stomach acid and bile salt stability, capability to abide by the digestive tract mucosa, and ability to colonize the digestive system [3]

History

The word ‘probiotic’ is derived from the Greek meaning ‘for life’ and has had several various meanings over the years. It was first utilized by Lilley and Stillwell in 1965 to explain substances produced by one bacterium which promoted the development of another. It therefore meant the precise opposite of ‘antibiotic’ and its etymological pedigree was beyond reproach. However, its usage in this form did not continue and it was consequently utilized by Sperti (1971) to describe tissue extracts which stimulated microbial growth. It was not up until 1974 that Parker utilized it in the context in which we shall use it in this book. His definition was ‘Organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance’. This meaning associated probiotic use to the digestive tract microflora however the inclusion of ‘substances’ offered it a large undertone which would include antibiotics. In an effort to enhance the meaning, Fuller (1989) redefined probiotics as ‘A live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by enhancing its digestive tract microbial balance’. This revised meaning worried the need for a probiotic to be practical. [4]

System of action

Probiotics are a combination of live beneficial germs and/or yeasts that naturally live in your body. Bacteria is normally seen in an unfavorable light as something that makes you ill. However, you have 2 type of bacteria continuously in and on your body– great bacteria and bad germs. Probiotics are comprised of excellent germs that helps keep your body healthy and working well. This excellent bacteria helps you in lots of ways, consisting of combating bad bacteria when you have too much of it, assisting you feel much better.

Probiotics are part of a bigger image worrying germs and your body– your microbiome. Think of a microbiome as a varied neighborhood of organisms, such as a forest, that interact to keep your body healthy. This neighborhood is comprised of things called microorganisms. You have trillions of microbes on and in your body. These microbes are a combination of:.

  • Bacteria.
  • Fungi (consisting of yeasts).
  • Infections.
  • Protozoa.

Everybody’s microbiome is distinct. No two individuals have the exact same microbial cells– even twins are different.

For a microbe to be called a probiotic, it needs to have a number of characteristics. These consist of being able to:.

  • Be isolated from a human.
  • Survive in your intestinal tract after consumption (being eaten).
  • Have a tested benefit to you.
  • Be safely taken in.

Where do advantageous probiotics (microbes) live in my body?

Though the most common place connected to advantageous microorganisms is your gut (primarily large intestinal tracts), you have numerous places in and on your body that host great microorganisms. These areas touch with the “outside world” and include your:.

  • Gut.
  • Mouth.
  • Vaginal area.
  • Urinary tract.
  • Skin.
  • Lungs.

How do probiotics work?

The primary task of probiotics, or excellent bacteria, is to preserve a healthy balance in your body. Think about it as keeping your body in neutral. When you are sick, bad germs enters your body and increases in number. This knocks your body out of balance. Great germs works to eliminate off the bad bacteria and bring back the balance within your body, making you feel better.

Great bacteria keeps you healthy by supporting your immune function and managing inflammation. Particular kinds of good germs can likewise:.

  1. Help your body digest food.
  2. Keep bad germs from getting out of control and making you ill.
  3. Develop vitamins.
  4. Help support the cells that line your gut to prevent bad germs that you might have consumed (through food or drinks) from entering your blood.
  5. Breakdown and absorb medications.

This balancing act is naturally occurring in your body all of the time. You do not actually need to take probiotic supplements to make it happen. Great bacteria is just a natural part of your body. Eating a healthy diet plan rich in fiber every day assists to keep the number of great bacteria at appropriate levels.

What are the most common types of probiotic germs?

Though there are numerous types of germs that can be considered probiotics, there are 2 particular types of bacteria that prevail probiotics found in stores. These include:.

  • Lactobacillus.
  • Bifidobacterium.

Probiotics are also comprised of excellent yeast. The most common kind of yeast found in probiotics is:.

  • Saccharomyces boulardii.

Can I use probiotics to aid with medical conditions?

There is currently a large amount of research study happening around the idea of what probiotics can do for your body. Despite the fact that there are a lot of potentially positive results, scientists are still working to find conclusive responses about how probiotics can aid with numerous conditions.

Nevertheless, there are some medical conditions where probiotics may assist. This can vary between individuals suggesting that what works for one person may not work for another. These can also vary based on the certain probiotic that is taken.

A few of the conditions that might be assisted by increasing the quantity of probiotics in your body (through food or supplements) include:.

  • Diarrhea (both diarrhea caused by antibiotics and from Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infection).
  • Inflammatory bowel illness (IBD).
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Yeast infections.
  • Urinary system infections.
  • Gum disease.
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis).
  • Upper respiratory infections (ear infections, acute rhinitis, sinusitis).
  • Sepsis (particularly in babies).

Can I take or consume something to increase the good probiotics (microbes) in my body?

You can increase the amount of great microorganisms in your body through foods, drinks and supplements. You might already have certain foods in your day-to-day diet that contain probiotics. Fermented foods in particular (yogurt and pickles, for instance) are home to a host of excellent bacteria that benefit your body. There are likewise fermented drinks like kombucha (fermented tea) or kefir (fermented dairy drink) that present additional probiotics into your diet plan.

Apart from food, you can include probiotics to your diet through dietary supplements. These aren’t drugs, so they do not need to be approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). It is essential that you always talk with your healthcare provider prior to starting any type of supplement or significant modification to your diet plan.

Can I get probiotics from food?

You can definitely increase beneficial microorganisms in your body from the foods you eat. Certain foods have probiotics (excellent bacteria) in them and can benefit the health of your microbiome.

These foods can be presented into your diet plan at any point of the day. You might even be routinely consuming them now and not understand that they consist of probiotics. You will wish to inspect the food label for “live and active cultures.” A couple of recommendations for just a few of the probiotic-rich foods you can add to your diet plan and in some cases to attempt them include:.

For breakfast, shot:.

  • Sourdough bread.

For lunch, try:.

  • Cottage cheese.

For a treat, shot:.

  • Fermented pickles.

For supper, try:.

  • Fermented sauerkraut.
  • Miso soup.

Make certain you are still developing a balanced and well balanced meal each time you sit down to eat. Though adding probiotic-rich foods into your diet will not harm you, balance is still crucial. Adding excessive of simply one food avoids your body from profiting of other food groups.

How do I take a probiotic supplement?

There are several ways you can take a probiotic supplement. They come in a variety of types, including in:.

  • Foods.
  • Drinks.
  • Capsules or pills.
  • Powders.
  • Liquids.

Probiotic supplements might be combined with a prebiotic. Prebiotics are intricate carbohydrates that feed the bacteria in your gut. Essentially, Prebiotics are the “food source” for the excellent germs. They assist feed the great bacteria and keep it healthy. Prebiotics consist of inulin, pectin and resistant starches.

When you have a supplement that integrates a probiotic and prebiotic, it’s called a synbiotic.

How effective are probiotics?

Scientists are currently uncertain how reliable probiotic supplements are for treating conditions. There’s constant research study on the topic. While lots of research study studies have actually had favorable outcomes on the impact of probiotic supplements, more research is still required.

It’s also essential to bear in mind that unlike medications, dietary supplements do not need to be authorized by the FDA. This means that makers can sell supplements simply with “claims” of safety and effectiveness.

Constantly talk with your doctor (or pediatrician) prior to taking a supplement or offering one to your kid. Supplements may hinder medications you may be taking. If you are pregnant or breast feeding, consult your supplier prior to taking any supplement.

Are there any storage directions for probiotics?

Numerous probiotic pressures are extremely vulnerable and need to be secured from heat, oxygen, light and humidity. The probiotics may start to break down or die if they are exposed to these aspects. Because of this, you may require to refrigerate your probiotics or store it in a specific location. Refrigerating specific probiotic stress ensures that they’re still feasible when you go to utilize them and will still provide the complete advantage of the probiotic. Always check out the labels on any probiotic item you purchase to ensure you keep it correctly and utilize it within the expiration date.

How safe are probiotics?

Due to the fact that microorganisms utilized as probiotics currently exist naturally in your body, probiotic foods and supplements are normally thought about safe. They may activate allergic reactions, and may likewise cause mild stomach upset, diarrhea, or flatulence (passing gas) and bloating for the very first couple of days after beginning to take them.

There are specific individuals who need to use caution when using probiotic supplements. There is a danger of infection in some individuals. These people consist of those who have:.

  • A weakened body immune system (those going through chemotherapy for example).
  • An important illness.
  • Just recently had surgery.

Care ought to also be used when providing probiotics to very ill babies.

Constantly talk to your healthcare provider before starting a probiotic supplement.

Can probiotics injure me?

For a lot of healthy people, probiotics don’t cause any harm. They are normally thought about safe and are typically “given a try” to see if they might assist with different medical conditions. There’s a lot of research around the topic of probiotics. Scientists are attempting to determine when and how they must be used, in addition to how reliable they are. Speak to your healthcare provider prior to beginning a probiotic supplement because there are some cases where you should not be taking them. It’s always best to have the conversation initially prior to beginning a brand-new supplement.

Exist any dangers related to probiotics?

Probiotics are usually considered safe. Nevertheless, there are some risks linked to the supplements. These risks are increased if you have a medical condition that compromises your immune system, have actually just recently had surgical treatment or have other severe medical conditions.

Unlikely, however possible, threats can include:.

  • Developing an infection.
  • Establishing a resistance to prescription antibiotics.
  • Developing hazardous byproducts from the probiotic supplement.

Should I give probiotics to my kids?

Probiotics can be beneficial for both grownups and kids. If your child has an illness that requires an antibiotic medication for treatment, taking a probiotic can help shorten signs. Probiotics can also be used to help ease constipation, acid reflux, diarrhea, gas and eczema in children.

Introducing probiotics into your child’s diet plan through food is usually a safe way to provide probiotics. Foods like yogurt and cottage cheese are typically part of a balanced diet plan and can add in good bacteria without much danger.

There are commercially available probiotic supplements specifically created for babies and kids. However, it is very important to talk to your kid’s pediatrician before giving them any probiotic supplement or altering the child’s diet plan to consist of probiotic-rich foods.

Do I need to take probiotics after I take prescription antibiotics?

Antibiotic medications are frequently needed to fight an infection. However, while antibiotics are eliminating the bad bacteria, they are also knocking out the excellent germs in your body. Some individuals develop conditions like diarrhea after taking an antibiotic. In other individuals, this may permit actually bad germs to take over and populate the gut, such as with C. diff. Some research study has actually shown a favorable connection in between taking probiotics after an antibiotic and remedy for diarrhea. This hasn’t been proven yet and does not work for everyone.

The thought behind including probiotics back into your body after taking an antibiotic is that it can repopulate the good germs that was ruined by the antibiotics and re-boot your system. The additional good bacteria helps repopulate your gut and battle any staying bad germs. Many people feel that adding in probiotics will not hurt, might assist you feel better a little faster and avoid diarrhea.

Should I try probiotics?

If you have an interest in adding probiotics to your diet plan, it’s worth a discussion with your doctor. Many suppliers might suggest giving them a try to see if they assist with your general health. It is important to bear in mind that not all probiotics behave the same way and have the exact same impacts. Each has their own private benefits. They generally don’t trigger harm. One simple method to start can be by merely presenting probiotic-rich foods into your diet, like yogurt.

Before you begin any supplements, make sure you talk with your doctor. Your supplier may be able to point you in the right instructions, helping you find out the best probiotic to take, just how much to take and when to take it. A conversation is constantly worth the time when it concerns your health. [5]

Benefits

Probiotics are useful germs. They exist throughout the body, although individuals mostly associate them with the stomach and intestinal tracts. As evidence of a link in between the gut microbiome and overall health grows, interest in probiotics is increasing.

Individuals often consume probiotics in the hope of stabilizing their intestinal flora, also referred to as the gut microbiome.

There are lots of pressures of probiotic bacteria, however the primary ones are of the Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium groups.

Prebiotics are various from probiotics. They are nutrients in food. The body does not absorb Prebiotics, however these nutrients assist promote the development or activity of beneficial bacteria.

Food sources of probiotics consist of fermented foods, such as some yogurts and kimchi. Probiotic supplements are likewise readily available.

Learn more about the difference in between Prebiotics and probiotics.

Health advantages

Share on PinterestConsuming probiotics through supplements or foods, such as kimchi, may help improve the gut microbiome.

Probiotics may benefit the body in different ways, such as:

  • increasing the health of the gut microbiome
  • restoring balance to the microbiome after an illness or treatment
  • supporting the body immune system

Probiotics may benefit individuals with various health conditions. However, identifying precisely who would take advantage of which kind of germs will need more research study.

Below are some ways in which probiotics might help keep health.

Diarrhea

Particular strains of probiotics have revealed favorable lead to treating diarrhea and gastroenteritis– swelling of the gut’s lining, which can cause diarrhea.

Probiotics might assist combat various kinds of diarrhea, consisting of erratic contagious diarrhea, intense watery diarrhea, and diarrhea due to a rotavirus.

Nevertheless, the results would likely depend on the type and dose of probiotic.

Psychological illness

Studies have actually indicated a link between the gut microbiota and the main nerve system, consisting of the brain. This link is called the gut-brain axis.

Some scientists think that germs in the gut might affect the nerve system and the way that people think and feel.

The findings recommend that probiotics might one day support the treatment of mental health concerns, such as anxiety and anxiety, and possibly some neurological conditions, too.

High cholesterol

Consuming foods consisting of probiotic Lactobacillus germs could decrease levels of low-density lipoprotein, or “bad” cholesterol, in addition to total cholesterol. the effect that probiotics could have on overall cholesterol.

After studying data from almost 2,000 individuals, the researchers concluded that probiotic supplements might substantially lower overall cholesterol levels in the blood.

However, the effectiveness may depend upon the type and dosage of the supplement. More studies are needed to confirm the results and clarify which probiotics would work.

High blood pressure

Milk fermented with strains of Lactobacillus may help lower high blood pressure.

The evaluation likewise showed that consuming probiotics might cause a boost in levels of vitamin D– which helps avoid high blood pressure– in the blood.

If additional research study validates that probiotics can assist handle high blood pressure, these germs could one day play a role in treating and avoiding heart problem.

Irritable or inflammatory bowel

There is proof that probiotics may help deal with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). a multi-strain probiotic might improve IBS signs.

The researchers required additional examinations into whether pressures of Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium bacteria could contribute in future therapies.

Probiotics did not regularly support the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, other than perhaps for one kind of the illness: ulcerative colitis.

Infection

In lab tests, scientists have found that a particular type of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei might protect the gut from infection by Listeria, a more harmful kind of bacteria.

Probiotics could assist deal with and avoid Listeria infection. Probiotics, if proven beneficial, would be less most likely to disturb the balance of the microbiome than the basic antibiotic treatment for this infection.

Psoriasis and fatigue syndrome

Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 could benefit people with conditions such as psoriasis and fatigue syndrome.

This specific type of germs is frequently consisted of in supplements to fortify the digestive system.

Food sources of probiotics

Foods that contain natural probiotics consist of some kinds of:.

  • yogurt
  • kefir
  • buttermilk
  • soft cheese
  • soy-based items, such as miso, tempeh, and some soy drinks
  • kimchi
  • unpasteurized sauerkraut
  • nutrition bars
  • juice
  • cereal

Numerous products are marketed as containing probiotics, but the body is most likely to gain from specific products. Eating soft cheese, for instance, might be a good way of making certain that probiotic germs reach the gut in an useful form. [6]

Advantages of probiotics for children

If your children are generally healthy and fit, you might question why they require probiotics. Nevertheless, if you check out the second article in our ‘Early life microbiome’ series, ‘Kid Microbiome: Dr Kate’s Guide’, you can see that the balance of the gut microbiome is very crucial. Youth years include elements such as school, tension, high-sugar & & low-fibre diet plan, medications/antibiotics, and hectic lifestyles which can all affect your child’s microbiome structure and decrease levels of friendly germs. There are many methods to support gut health, and you can learn more about this in our post Gut Health, All You Need to Know. But providing your kids probiotics, likewise called live cultures or good/friendly germs, are a simple way to ensure they have additional assistance they might require in the pressure of life.

Digestion and energy

Your child is continuously growing! As such it’s crucial they are absorbing their food and soaking up the nutrients well. Our microbiome supplies gastrointestinal enzymes to assist kids to break down their food1. Plus, they support a healthy gut environment guaranteeing great nutrient absorption. Many microorganisms in our gut can likewise produce essential vitamins2!

Supporting resistance

Schools and nurseries are infamous hangouts for hazardous bugs, where they can quickly spread out. With 70% of our body immune system being found in the gut, fortunately is that you can support your child’s resistance with probiotics. Our gut microbes essentially serve as teachers, assisting the immune system react to dangers appropriately. Probiotics become part of our friendly germs barrier which safeguards our gut cells and body immune system.

Healthcare experts can discover more about the complex relationship in between probiotics and the immune system in this short article on our sis website, Probiotic Professionals: Probiotics for Resistance.

Mood and wellbeing

Probiotics may have the ability to assist by regulating our state of mind by means of the connection of our brain and microbiome referred to as the gut-brain axis. It’s estimated that 90% of the delighted hormone serotonin, is produced in the gut. The neurotransmitter GABA is also essential for helping us to ‘switch off’ and sleep and GABA can be produced by friendly germs in the gut such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Find out more about the Gut-Brain Axis and Probiotics.

Skin health

Sadly, children frequently struggle with skin problems like eczema and acne, presently 1 in 5 children in the UK have eczema. Probiotics may have the ability to improve skin health by supporting a healthy gut lining, increasing the levels of good germs in the gut, and relaxing down inflammation. For additional information, have a look at Probiotics for Acne and Skin Health. [7]

Adverse effects

When you present a probiotic supplement to your body it starts to make adjustments to the change happening in your gut microbiome and works to eliminate damaging toxins from your body. This is why some individuals experience a couple of initial negative effects. These results are typically moderate and tend to vanish in a couple of days. Provide your body time to adjust and try decreasing the dose for some time, if needed. Here are some typical probiotic adverse effects you might experience briefly and how to find relief.

Headaches

When you consume foods that are abundant in proteins, compounds called biogenic amines (including tryptamine and antihistamine) are formed. These compounds can trigger the main nerve system to get thrilled, and the decline or increase in blood circulation may cause headaches. Such headaches generally do not last for more than a week. How to find relief: To find remedy for headaches be sure to get a lot of rest and consume extra water. Water can help your body procedure and break down proteins faster and get rid of headaches.

Gas and Bloating

Gas and bloating are common probiotic negative effects when beginning a regimen, particularly if you suffer from small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). This is called the Herxheimer Reaction, a condition that occurs when damaging bacteria passes away and develops gas. How to find relief: If you become gassy or experience stomach discomfort or cramps attempt taking smaller sized dosages of the probiotics for some time. Once your body is utilized to it and there are no side effects, you can slowly increase the dosage to reach your needed level. You can likewise discover relief by consuming chamomile or peppermint tea or utilizing a warm compress or heating pad on locations of pain.

Acid Reflux

Acid reflux happens when the acidic contents of your stomach travel back into the food pipeline. This produces a burning feeling in the lower chest region, typically after a meal. This, comparable to bloating and gas, also happens when probiotics exterminate the damaging bacteria in your body and they launch toxic substances. How to discover relief: To discover relief from heartburn dissolve your probiotic tablet in some water and drink it gradually instead of directly swallowing the supplement. This reduces the intro of the probiotic to your body and helps in reducing digestion-related negative effects. It also helps to avoid laying down after meals and eat slowly to give your body time to absorb your food and balance your gut plants.

Nausea

Queasiness typically happens from stomach acid production when you start taking probiotic supplements. How to discover relief: Taking your probiotics in addition to a meal, with yogurt, or a smoothie might help you find relief from nausea.

Constipation

While it might be ironic, some people experience irregularity within a couple of days of starting probiotics. If your body has lots of toxin-producing harmful germs, waste and toxic substance removal may not take place as quick as it is produced which can be the cause of constipation. Occasionally, some types of probiotic germs such as Lactobacilli can also trigger this negative effects. How to discover relief: To find remedy for constipation, include more fiber in your diet in addition to your routine probiotic supplements. This may offer you relief and regularize your defecation.

Diarrhea

Probiotics work towards the smooth operation of your digestive system and cleansing of the digestion system. In fact, among the most typical uses of probiotic supplements is to fight diarrhea. Nevertheless, when you begin taking probiotics, you may experience mild increase in gas, bloating, thirst, and some digestion issues consisting of diarrhea. Diarrhea can be uneasy, however, felt confident that your body’s gastrointestinal system will restore balance within 14 days. How to find relief: To find remedy for diarrhea, take your supplement on an empty stomach and keep drinking lots of water. You can also increase your fiber consumption and eat more starches such as red potatoes.

Itching or Rashes on the Skin

When bacteria in the body releases toxins, it is launched through the pores of the skin. This is why people who have actually recently begun taking probiotics sometimes suffer skin infections and rashes. At times, this likewise occurs when the probiotic supplement utilizes poor-quality active ingredients for the solution. (8) Probiotics help support the immune system, so after a duration of modification, this reaction needs to settle, and you might even experience clearer skin if you’ve had skin problems in the past. How to discover relief: To find relief from skin irritations always select a top quality probiotic that only utilizes the best active ingredients. You can likewise use honey, coconut oil, or another high-oil lotion to the affected area. [8]

Probiotic Dosage for Grownups

Just like anything you require to improve your health, dosage is essential. If you take too much, you may trigger brand-new problems, and too little will not do anything.

There’s a common misunderstanding that probiotics must be taken every day, Probiotics are a tool that can be valuable when attempting to improve specific conditions usually connected to the stomach system, however are not a daily supplement.

There is still a requirement for a lot more research study on the microbiome of the gut. Because of the lack of deeper info, we do not understand what the optimal balance is for bacteria in the stomach.

While you can find suggested dosages for grownups with different ailments, it’s finest to speak to a medical professional about the right dosage for you. Just a doctor who has examined you will be able to determine what your health needs or to provide your particular dosage amounts. [9]

Conclusion

Probiotics use a large range of health advantages.

Nevertheless, their results on weight are mixed and appear to depend upon the kind of probiotic.

Proof shows that Lactobacillus gasseri may help individuals with obesity reduce weight and stubborn belly fat. Furthermore, a probiotic supplement blend called VSL # 3 might decrease weight gain in those on a high calorie diet.

At the end of the day, specific kinds of probiotics might have modest impacts on your weight, especially when combined with a healthy, whole-foods diet plan.

Nonetheless, there are numerous other factors to take a probiotic supplement.

They can enhance your digestion health and cardiovascular risk factors, lower swelling, and even help fight depression and stress and anxiety. [10]

Recommendations

  1. https://www.britannica.com/science/probiotic
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/probiotics/faq-20058065
  3. https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/50992
  4. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_1
  5. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/14598-probiotics
  6. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/264721#food-sources
  7. https://www.optibacprobiotics.com/uk/learning-lab/in-depth/childrens-health/kids-probiotics
  8. https://lovebugprobiotics.com/blogs/news/probiotic-side-effects-and-your-digestive-health
  9. https://www.livestrong.com/article/367869-recommended-dosage-for-probiotics/
  10. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/probiotics-and-weight-loss#bottom-line
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