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The amino acid L-proline is thought about to be nonessential since people and other animals can biosynthesize it, generally from another inessential amino acid L-glutamic acid. Proline is unusual in that it is heterocyclic, and thus is the only natural amino acid which contains a secondary amine group. Just the L-enantiomer is found in nature.

Proline likewise is uncommon because it was manufactured before it was isolated from natural sources. In 1900, chemistry Nobel Reward– gaining German chemist Richard M. Willstätter prepared the D,L-racemate from N-methylproline. The following year, Emil Fischer, another German Nobel laureate, isolated the L-form from egg albumen and hydrolyzed casein.

Proline, like natural amino acids, is utilized for biosynthesizing proteins. The stiff five-membered ring in proline provides proteins made from it considerably different secondary structures from proteins made from open-chain proteins.

In 2002, Mohammed Movassaghi and Eric N. Jacobsen at Harvard University presented the notion that proline is the “simplest enzyme”. At that time, several researchers were using proline as an asymmetric catalyst as though it was a brand-new thing; earlier work using proline had actually been eclipsed by the introduction of metal-based uneven catalysts. Movassaghi and Jacobsen declared that it was high time for chemists to understand that asymmetry could be attained with basic substances and without using metals.

A few years later, Eric Smith of the Santa Fe Institute and coauthors elaborated on the easiest enzyme concept. They argued that “small molecule catalysis is a finding of utmost value for the origin of biochemistry”. To put it simply, little particles, and not large, intricate enzymes, were the only catalysts offered to promote prebiotic evolution. [2]


L-Proline is a major amino acid discovered in cartilage and is very important for maintaining vibrant skin as well as repair work of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. It is also vital for the body immune system, and for required balance of this formula. It is an important part of collagen and is important for appropriate performance of joints and tendons. L-Proline is very essential for the proper performance of joints and tendons. Helps keep and enhance heart muscles.

System of action

Glycogenic, by L-Proline oxidase in the kidney, it is ring-opened and is oxidized to form L-Glutamic acid. L-Ornithine and L-Glutamic acid are transformed to L-Proline by means of L-Glutamic acid-gamma-semialdehyde. It is consisted of abundantly in collagen, and is totally associated with the function of arthrosis and chordae. [3]


Proline is biosynthetically derived from the amino acid L-glutamate. Glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase (ATP-dependent) and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (which needs NADH or NADPH). This can then either spontaneously cyclize to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, which is minimized to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (using NADH or NADPH), or turned into ornithine by ornithine aminotransferase, followed by cyclisation by ornithine cyclodeaminase to form proline.

Biological activity

L-Proline has been found to serve as a weak agonist of the glycine receptor and of both NMDA and non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) ionotropic glutamate receptors. It has actually been proposed to be a prospective endogenous excitotoxin. In plants, proline accumulation is a common physiological reaction to different stresses but is likewise part of the developmental program in generative tissues (e.g. Pollen). A diet plan rich in proline was linked to an increased danger of anxiety in people.

Characteristic in protein structure

The distinctive cyclic structure of proline’s side chain gives proline a remarkable conformational rigidity compared to other amino acids. It likewise impacts the rate of peptide bond development between proline and other amino acids. When proline is bound as an amide in a peptide bond, its nitrogen is not bound to any hydrogen, indicating it can not function as a hydrogen bond donor, however can be a hydrogen bond acceptor.

Peptide bond formation with inbound Pro-trnapro is considerably slower than with any other trnas, which is a general function of N-alkylamino acids. Peptide bond development is also sluggish in between an incoming trna and a chain ending in proline; with the production of proline-proline bonds slowest of all.

The exceptional conformational rigidity of proline impacts the secondary structure of proteins near a proline residue and may represent proline’s higher prevalence in the proteins of thermophilic organisms. Protein secondary structure can be described in terms of the dihedral angles φ, ψ and ω of the protein foundation. The cyclic structure of proline’s side chain locks the angle φ at approximately − 65 °.

Proline acts as a structural disruptor in the middle of regular secondary structure elements such as alpha helices and beta sheets; nevertheless, proline is frequently found as the very first residue of an alpha helix and likewise in the edge strands of beta sheets. Proline is likewise frequently found in turns (another sort of secondary structure), and aids in the formation of beta turns. This may account for the curious truth that proline is typically solvent-exposed, despite having an entirely aliphatic side chain.

Numerous prolines and/or hydroxyprolines in a row can develop a polyproline helix, the primary secondary structure in collagen. The hydroxylation of proline by prolyl hydroxylase (or other additions of electron-withdrawing substituents such as fluorine) increases the conformational stability of collagen considerably. For this reason, the hydroxylation of proline is a crucial biochemical process for preserving the connective tissue of higher organisms. Serious diseases such as scurvy can arise from flaws in this hydroxylation, e.g., anomalies in the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase or absence of the essential ascorbate (vitamin C) cofactor.

Cis-trans isomerization

Peptide bonds to proline, and to other N-substituted amino acids (such as sarcosine), have the ability to populate both the cis and trans isomers. A lot of peptide bonds overwhelmingly adopt the trans isomer (generally 99.9% under unstrained conditions), chiefly because the amide hydrogen (trans isomer) provides less steric repulsion to the preceding Cα atom than does the following Cα atom (cis isomer). By contrast, the cis and trans isomers of the X-Pro peptide bond (where X represents any amino acid) both experience steric clashes with the surrounding substitution and have a much lower energy difference. Thus, the fraction of X-Pro peptide bonds in the cis isomer under unstrained conditions is substantially raised, with cis portions usually in the variety of 3-10%. Nevertheless, these values depend upon the preceding amino acid, with Gly and aromatic residues yielding increased portions of the cis isomer. Cis fractions up to 40% have actually been recognized for Aromatic-Pro peptide bonds.

From a kinetic standpoint, cis-trans proline isomerization is a really slow procedure that can hinder the progress of protein folding by trapping several proline residues important for folding in the non-native isomer, particularly when the native protein requires the cis isomer. This is due to the fact that proline residues are specifically manufactured in the ribosome as the trans isomer type. All organisms have prolyl isomerase enzymes to catalyze this isomerization, and some germs have actually specialized prolyl isomerases associated with the ribosome. However, not all prolines are essential for folding, and protein folding may continue at a typical rate despite having non-native conformers of many X-Pro peptide bonds.


Proline is among the two amino acids that do not follow in addition to the normal Ramachandran plot, together with glycine. Due to the ring formation linked to the beta carbon, the ψ and φ angles about the peptide bond have less permitted degrees of rotation. As a result, it is often found in “turns” of proteins as its totally free entropy (ΔS) is not as relatively large to other amino acids and hence in a folded form vs. Unfolded form, the change in entropy is smaller sized. Additionally, proline is seldom found in α and β structures as it would decrease the stability of such structures, since its side chain α-N can just form one nitrogen bond.

Furthermore, proline is the only amino acid that does not form a red/purple colour when developed by spraying with ninhydrin for usages in chromatography. Proline, rather, produces an orange/yellow colour. [4]

Proline metabolic process

Proline synthesis

Proline synthesis from glutamine, glutamate, arginine, and ornithine in animals is cell-, tissue-, and species-specific. All mammals can synthesize proline from arginine by means of arginase (both type I and type II), ornithine aminotransferase, and P5C reductase, with the mammary tissue, small intestine (postweaning animals), liver, and kidneys being quantitatively the most active tissues. In mammary tissue, the major products of arginine catabolism are proline, ornithine, and urea. Due to the fact that proline oxidase activity is absent from mammary tissue, there is no deterioration of arginine-derived proline in the lactating gland. This guarantees maximal net production of proline from arginine by the breast feeding mammary gland. Since P5C synthase is also absent from mammary tissue, there is no formation of proline from glutamine or glutamate by this tissue. Hence, arginase plays an important function in proline synthesis by lactating mammary tissue. Surprisingly, the activity of P5C reductase is at least 50-fold greater than that of P5C dehydrogenase in breast feeding mammary tissue, therefore preferring the conversion of arginine-derived P5C into proline rather than into glutamate and glutamine. The synthesis of proline from arginine helps to prevent an irreversible loss of arginine carbons in nursing porcine mammary tissue. These findings likewise provide a biochemical description for the observation that the output of proline in sow’s milk significantly surpasses the uptake of plasma proline by the breast feeding mammary gland, whereas the output of arginine in sow’s milk is much lower than the uptake of plasma arginine by the lactating mammary gland. Because of substantial catabolism of arginine for proline synthesis via the arginase path and the lack of proline catabolism in breast feeding porcine mammary tissue, there is a relative enrichment of proline however a relative deficiency of arginine in milk proteins.

The small intestine of postweaning pigs deteriorates roughly 40% of arginine in the enteral diet plan, with proline being a significant product. In addition, both glutamate and glutamine in the enteral diet are practically totally deteriorated by the small intestine, with proline being a significant item. In the postabsorptive state, one-third of glutamine in arterial blood is drawn out by the pig small intestine. Products of glutamate and glutamine destruction in enterocytes include not only proline however likewise ornithine, citrulline, arginine, and alanine. Research studies with jejunum-cannulated young pigs demonstrated net release of proline from the small intestine of food-deprived piglets. De novo synthesis and the hydrolysis of small peptides in enterocytes and the intestinal lumen may be sources of this gut-derived proline. Glucocorticoids are major hormones that control proline synthesis from arginine and glutamine in cells and tissues.

In contrast to mammals, birds have low arginase activity in tissues and, for that reason, a minimal capability to convert arginine into proline. For that reason, proline is a nutritionally important AA for avian types, including chickens. Furthermore, carnivores (e.g., felines and ferrets) do not have P5C synthase in enterocytes and other cell types, and can not convert glutamine and glutamate into proline in the body. Hence, arginine is the only substrate for proline synthesis in these species. Owing to a high demand for dietary arginine for numerous artificial processes and the absence of its endogenous synthesis, arginine is a nutritionally important AA for carnivores. Dietary supplementation with proline may make up for some arginine in these animals due to an inhibition of arginase by proline-derived ornithine.

Proline destruction

Except for mammary tissue, the majority of tissues express proline oxidase activity. A byproduct of this mitochondrial enzyme is superoxide anion (O2 −), which can be converted into H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species. In tissues and cells (e.g., porcine placenta and enterocytes of neonatal pigs) that do not contain arginase activity, proline is the only substrate for the synthesis of ornithine and, therefore, polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). This is of massive importance in both nutrition and physiology due to the fact that (1) polyamines are key molecules managing DNA and protein synthesis, in addition to cell expansion, differentiation, and migration; (2) both placentae and neonatal small intestine grow very rapidly. In ruminants, placentae contain both arginase and proline oxidase, which helps to compensate for reasonably low concentrations of proline in maternal blood.

Although all cells can recycle P5C into proline by P5C reductase and transform P5C into ornithine by ornithine aminotransferase, the usage of P5C for the synthesis of citrulline is highly cell- and tissue-specific. Of particular note, only mammalian enterocytes can manufacturing citrulline from P5C, suggesting a distinct function for the small intestine in proline metabolic process. Although the mammalian liver can convert P5C into ornithine through the urea cycle, there is no net synthesis of arginine in this organ because extremely high arginase activity rapidly hydrolyzes arginine into ornithine and urea (Wu and Morris 1998). In liver and kidneys, P5C can be oxidized entirely to CO2 by means of the development of α-ketoglutarate by P5C dehydrogenase. Nevertheless, in placentae and enterocytes with restricted P5C dehydrogenase activity, oxidation of proline to CO2 is negligible. This avoids a permanent loss of proline carbons and maximizes the accessibility of P5C for the synthesis of polyamines. Engaging evidence reveals that polyamines play a crucial function in digestive tract development, function, and health during the neonatal period.

Because the whole particle of P5C is integrated into citrulline through ornithine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamoyltransferase in enterocytes, proline offers its nitrogen and carbon skeleton for citrulline and arginine synthesis in the small intestine which expresses these two enzymes and P5C synthase. An absence of understanding or misunderstanding of these standard biochemical reactions can lead researchers to make incorrect conclusions relating to the contribution of proline carbons to endogenous synthesis of arginine. Such errors, which have actually just recently accompanied glutamine studies, will certainly not advance the field of mammalian arginine metabolic process but rather will lead to much deceptive confusion in literature. [5]

What are the Health Advantages of Proline?

Maintains Skin Health and Repair Works Wounds

Collagen comprises skin and connective tissue. Proline is an essential part of collagen. Without proline (or actually, without collagen) wounds wouldn’t recover because the body wouldn’t be able to rebuild skin when you get injured. Likewise, your skin would sag since there ‘d be nothing to hold it in place. Connective tissue links things together. Everything falls apart without it. Eating enough amino acids to make collagen, especially proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine, assists keep skin company, healthy, and looking youthful.

Supports Gastrointestinal Function

Proline might help deal with leaky gut syndrome by reinforcing the gut lining. Leaky gut occurs when tiny holes open up in the gut lining, enabling pathogens to get in. This sets off inflammation. Amino acids, consisting of proline, are needed to rebuild any broken intestinal cells, keeping the lining intact. Proline also helps in reducing swelling and enhance immune function in the gastrointestinal system. A common recommendation for attempting to heal leaking gut is to take bone broth routinely, partially due to its high proline content.

Reduces Danger of Heart Disease

Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the US. Fatty accumulations in the artery walls cause cardiac arrest and strokes due to clog. This avoids the blood from flowing through. But, proline assists launch some of this stuck fat, assisting get rid of the clog. This sends it back into the blood stream for usage elsewhere. Proline may help reduce the danger of a heart attack.

Reduces Swelling and Helps Manage Tension

Proline helps lower swelling, which promotes a healthy body immune system. It likewise assists set off a waterfall of anti-inflammatory substances and genes that help with recovery from ecological tension (5 ). Proline help in more effective energy production, allowing us to much better handle tension. Furthermore, it repair work DNA damaged by oxidative tension and promotes liver detoxification. All of these functions cause an enhanced body immune system and lower swelling. This decreases total threat of disease, making you feel your best.

Reinforces Joints and Other Connective Tissue

Given that proline is part of collagen, it is required to fix connective tissue of all kinds. Connective tissue assists hold your bones in place and behaves like a shock absorber. Ask anyone without connective tissue in a knee to inform you how uncomfortable life is without it! Bones grinding against bones– no thanks!

Proline helps maintain and fix connective tissue. You require it to make another amino acid called hydroxylysine, one of the primary parts of collagen, tendons, and muscle.

We naturally produce less collagen with age, and joints begin to degrade gradually. This is intensified by poor diet, stress to the joints, and being obese. Taking in more amino acids that assist form collagen might assist support the formation of brand-new connective tissue, cartilage, and even strengthen bones. Proline helps lower inflammation, which maintains joint movement and function and reduces discomfort associated with aging.

Proline Food Sources

Considering that proline is an amino acid, you’ll find it in high protein foods, especially those high in collagen. Generally, animal foods with collagen consist of those with connective tissue. For instance, a whole chicken (with bones and skin) includes more collagen than a chicken breast with bones and skin removed.

Individuals these days frequently pick boneless, skinless meat (a disappointment for upping proline). To get some, add collagen sources to your diet plan. No recommended daily requirement for proline exists. “Non-essential” amino acids are discovered in lots of foods. If you consume any kind of food with protein (even vegetarian sources) you more than likely satisfy your requirements.

The foods greatest in proline include:

  • Bone Broth
  • Gelatin
  • Organ meats, like liver
  • Collagen supplements
  • L-proline supplements
  • Beef
  • Chicken
  • Wild-caught fish
  • Eggs [6]

It is found in greatest concentrations in natural sources of collagen. The best sources of proline and collagen in the diet are bone broth and other high-protein foods, specifically animal items, such as organ meats like liver, grass-fed beef, pasture-raised chicken, wild-caught fish and eggshell membranes.

When you consume animals “nose to tail,” you consume proline and collagen from parts of the animal, including the bones, connective tissue and muscle tissue.

Focused collagen protein powder and gelatin are 2 other excellent sources of proline. Collagen powder is made from sources including chicken collagen, bovine/beef collagen, eggshell membrane collagen and fish collagen. Gelatin is a kind of hydrolyzed beef collagen, which means it’s essentially a part of broken-down collagen that is primarily utilized in desserts or food production considering that it creates a gel-like texture.

Utilizing bone broth or collagen powders/supplements can truly come in handy because these save you loads of time and effort. For instance, slow-cooked bone broth is made over the course of one to two days, but when you utilize focused bone broth protein powder you can get the advantages of bone broth nearly quickly.

Chicken collagen includes glycine, glutamine and proline, plus chondroitin and glucosamine, 2 compounds that assist reconstruct cartilage. You can take in some by consuming chicken prepared on the bone with its skin or by making chicken broth, soup, stew and other savory dishes with a range of animal parts (organs, bones, etc).

You can also get small amounts of proline from consuming fish collagen, such as by consuming pieces of fish which contain small bones, tissues or scales, or by making fish stock/broth, soup and stew (such as with fish heads).

Another source is yokes of cage-free eggs. A fantastic way to up your proline/collagen consumption is to add some collagen powder to scrambled eggs or a omelette.

Is proline found in plants? Yes, although eating plant foods like vegetables or fruits won’t provide you with very high amount. In plants components, such as pollen, proline build-up is actually a reaction to physiological tensions and likewise associated with structure development.

Proline vs. Glycine vs. Lysine

What is various about proline compared to other amino acids?

Roughly one-third of collagen is composed of glycine. Glycine is an amino acid that’s vital for several muscle, cognitive and metabolic functions. It is among the main amino acids used to form collagen and gelatin. The best sources of glycine are similar to proline sources, such as bone broth, collagen protein powder and other protein foods.

Of one glycine’s functions includes helping break down and transport nutrients like glycogen and fat to be used by cells for energy. It’s known as an “anti-aging amino acid” because of how it helps preserve lean muscle mass and stimulates the secretion of human growth hormone. Glycine is used to treat lots of health conditions, such as muscle wasting (scaropenia), ulcers, arthritis, dripping gut syndrome, diabetes, kidney and cardiac arrest, neurobehavioral disorders, and fatigue.

Lysine (or l-lysine) is an essential amino acid that is found in protein foods like meat, beans, cheeses and eggs, in addition to offered in supplement type. Like proline, L-lysine help in the growth and maintenance of bones and connective tissue by assisting form to collagen. It is likewise very essential in the development of carnitine, which transforms fats into energy.

L-lysine might help fix the digestive system, lower cholesterol levels and be practical for absorbing calcium, which safeguards against blood clots and other issues.

Other benefits credited to l-lysine consist of dealing with cold sores, anxiety, diarrhea and even the advancement of cancer. The best dietary sources of L-lysine are beef, chicken, turkey, fish like tuna, white beans, pumpkin seeds and eggs.

Arginine is another amino acid discovered in collagen. It is discovered in protein foods, including beef and other types of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy items. Arginine may use advantages for heart health, workout efficiency, mental abilities and far more.

How to Get Proline in Your Diet Plan + Recipes

1. Drink Bone Broth

To take in more proline, it’s ideal to consume real bone broth practically daily, which likewise supplies lots of other nutrients beyond simply amino acids. Bone broth is among the best methods not only to get more collagen into your diet plan, however also trace minerals, electrolytes, and useful substances like chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate and hyaluronic acid.

For the most advantages, objective to have about eight to 16 ounces of bone broth per day. You can make your own homemade bone broth using conventional dishes that take one to 2 days or by consuming dried or powdered bone broth/bone broth protein. Bone broth can be consumed on its own, added to shakes or smoothies, or utilized it in all sorts of sweet and tasty recipes, such as marinades, stews, or even shakes and smoothies.

2. Take Collagen Powder/Collagen Supplements

You can likewise use collagen protein in healthy smoothies, shakes or other dishes. I recommend a multi-collagen powder which contains numerous collagen types, such as types 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10. Each type of collagen has unique functions and advantages, so it’s best to supplement with more than one type.

Collagen is unappetizing, odor free and simple to blend into all types of recipes– plus it’s gluten-free, dairy-free, nut-free and soy-free. Add some to baked dishes like muffins, bars or pancakes to increase the protein material. You can also use collagen powder just like gelatin to thicken smoothies, desserts or dishes that have a gel-like texture. Constantly ensure to purchase a collagen powder that is derived from grass-fed or pasture-raised, healthy animals (preferably that are organically raised).

3. Eat Enough Protein and an Overall Healthy Diet Plan

You’ll get the most gain from consuming proline and other amino acids found in collagen if you consume a nutrient-dense diet plan that consists of a lot of protein and lots of antioxidants. This is handy for preserving greater collagen levels and avoiding collagen destruction because it reduces swelling and totally free extreme damage (also called oxidative tension).

You can boost the amount of proline you absorb and utilize by eating foods that serve as “collagen cofactors,” such as plenty of fresh veggies, fresh fruits, fresh herbs and spices; various sources of “clean” protein; and foods high in vitamin C, vitamin A, copper and iron. [7]

Possible Side Effects of L-Proline

A naturally happening amino acid that your body produces on its own, L-proline might be taken in supplemental form to decrease the accumulation of arterial deposits and reduce the risk of heart disease. In addition, this amino acid may likewise assist your body build collagen, which is a main structural tissue in connective tissue. L-proline supplements have no recognized side effects.

Why Take Proline

Your body already produces enough of the amino acid proline, so it appears unnecessary to take it supplementally. Having an abundance of this amino acid, a foundation of protein, in your system, however, can enhance the health of your joints, the look of your skin and robustness of your body immune system. L-proline is readily available in meat, dairy and eggs; if your diet is low in these protein sources, you might have problem producing ideal levels of this amino acid. Some people likewise have a concern metabolizing, and therefore making use of, L-proline; vitamin C deficiency can trigger this challenge.

Your body already produces enough of the amino acid proline, so it seems unneeded to take it supplementally.

L-proline is readily offered in meat, dairy and eggs; if your diet plan is low in these protein sources, you might have difficulty producing optimal levels of this amino acid.

How Much

Tough research supporting making use of proline supplements to improve skin tone and joint vitality is doing not have. Leon Chaitow, in the book “Amino Acids for Treatment,” took a look at the function of proline in the conversion to hydroxyproline, a foundation of collagen. He recommends that supplements might aid with soft tissue pressure, wound recovery, hypermobile joints and the drooping skin related to aging. Chaitow recommends taking in between 500 and 1,000 milligrams daily, together with extra vitamin C.

Tough research supporting the use of proline supplements to improve complexion and joint vitality is doing not have.

Leon Chaitow, in the book “Amino Acids for Treatment,” took a look at the function of proline in the conversion to hydroxyproline, a building block of collagen.

Protein Waste

Excessive proline can offer you an elevated amino-acid intake. This causes your body to develop protein waste that must be expelled by the liver and, specifically, the kidneys– putting a great deal of pressure on these organs. The majority of people can handle the extra amino acids, however if you have liver or kidney illness, consult with your medical professional before adding any additional amino acid to your diet. [8]

Special Preventative Measures and Warnings

When taken by mouth: Proline is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts. There isn’t sufficient trusted info to know if proline is safe when used in larger amounts as medicine or what the negative effects might be.

When applied to the skin: There isn’t sufficient trusted information to know if proline is safe or what the adverse effects might be. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn’t sufficient trustworthy information to know if proline is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Remain on the safe side and stay with the quantities found in foods.

Children: Proline is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in food amounts.


We currently have no details for PROLINE Interactions. [9]

The Bottom Line

We say amino, and researchers say “imino.” However in any case, L-proline is an active chemical in the body. It works together with other amino acids and vitamin C to form collagen that assists build tissues, and it’s always on the alert for body repairs. Blood vessels, digestive tract lining, joints and skin are all target areas that benefit from proline.

The just known side effects are reactions from taking too much L-proline, like all amino acids. It causes toxicity levels and amino acid imbalances in your body. Talk with your medical practitioner about taking any amino acid if you have kidney or liver illness.

Your body efficiently makes proline when an individual’s diet contains adequate-protein, and vitamin C facilitates its absorption. Conditions such as arteriosclerosis, joint pain, leaking gut, skin problems and demanding sports regimens might gain from a proline increase.

Drinking bone broth, adding protein-packed foods or taking a supplement are all methods to ensure you are getting enough. Whichever way you get it, proline seems to be a necessary piece of the body’s puzzle. [10]


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