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Sage is an herb. There are numerous types of sage. The two most typical prevail sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia).

Sage might assist with chemical imbalances in the brain that trigger problems with memory and thinking skills. It may also change how the body utilizes insulin and sugar.

People frequently use sage for memory and believing skills, high cholesterol, and signs of menopause. It is likewise utilized for pain after surgery, lung cancer, aching throat, sunburn, and numerous other conditions, but there is no good scientific proof to support these usages. [2]


Salvia officinalis has actually been used considering that ancient times for warding off evil, snakebites, increasing females’s fertility, and more. The romans referred to sage as the “holy herb,” and utilized it in their spiritual rituals. Theophrastus discussed 2 various sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a comparable cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the older stated the latter plant was called salvia by the romans, and utilized as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other usages. Charlemagne advised the plant for cultivation in the early midlifes, and during the carolingian empire, it was cultivated in abbey gardens. Walafrid strabo explained it in his poem hortulus as having a sweet aroma and being useful for numerous human conditions– he went back to the greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.

The plant had a high credibility throughout the middle ages, with numerous expressions referring to its healing residential or commercial properties and worth. It was in some cases called s. Salvatrix (sage the savior). Dioscorides, pliny, and galen all suggested sage as a diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, and tonic. Le menagier de paris, in addition to advising cold sage soup and sage sauce for poultry, recommends infusion of sage for cleaning hands at table. John gerard’s herball (1597) states that sage “is singularly helpful for the head and brain, it quickeneth the senses and memory, strengtheneth the sinews, restoreth health to those that have the palsy, and taketh away shakey shivering of the members.” gervase markham’s the english huswife (1615) provides a recipe for a tooth-powder of sage and salt. It appears in dishes for 4 burglars vinegar, a mix of herbs which was expected to ward off the plague. In past centuries, it was likewise utilized for hair care, insect bites and wasp stings, worried conditions, mental conditions, oral preparations for inflammation of the mouth, tongue and throat, and also to lower fevers. [3]


Sage (salvia officinalis) is native to the mediterranean and naturalized throughout europe and north america. Referred to as garden sage, meadow sage, and real sage, this pungent herb is a member of the lamiaceae, or mint, family. The genus name is taken from the latin salvare meaning “to save.” the particular name officinalis shows that sage was included on authorities lists of medical herbs. There are numerous species of sage, including clary sage (s. Sclarea) named because of its conventional use as an eyewash. Native americans used the roots and leaves of lyre-leafed sage (s. Lyrata l.), likewise called cancerweed, as a salve for sores and in a tea to treat colds and coughs. Another species, referred to as magnificent sage (s. Divinorum), a native of oaxaca, mexico, has actually been used for centuries by local shamans to achieve modified states of consciousness in healing rituals. There are a lot more garden varieties, consisting of red or purple sage (s. Officinalis purpurascens), which is valued particularly for its medical purposes.

Sage grows completely sun and well-drained soils, growing wild in some areas. It is a sturdy evergreen shrub with a deep taproot and an erect root stalk that produces woody, square, a little downy, branching stems that may reach a height of 4 ft (1.2 m). This familiar garden seasonal has long, light-green leaf stalks that bear simple opposite lance- or oval-shaped leaves. The strong and flexible leaves are veined, with a velvet-like somewhat crinkled texture and might grow to 2 in (5.1 cm) long in some ranges. Leaf margins resemble a great embroidery finish with rounded minutely toothed edges. They are a gray-green on the leading and lighter on the underside. The whole plant is highly fragrant, with a familiar pungency. Fresh leaves are bitter to the taste. Sage blooms in the middle of summer with little white, blue, or purple flowers. [4]


Fundamental requirements sage is a grows finest in a well draining, rich, clay loams with a ph in between 6.5 and 7.0. It must be planted in full sun, although some afternoon shade is endured. Sage plants require warm temperatures and ample sunshine in order to produce a high essential oil content in the leaves. Propagation sage is usually propagated from seed, although both cuttings, departments and air layering is also effectively practiced. The planting site needs to be warm, dry and protected from wind. Seeds must be sown after all danger of frost has passed leaving 23 cm (9 in) in between seeds. Fertilizer may be added to the soil prior to planting to help advancement. Plants ought to be thinned to a last spacing of 45 cm (18 in). General care and upkeep sage plants need to be pruned in early spring to promote brand-new growth, or after blooming in the summertime. In addition to an application at planting, sage will take advantage of a side dressing of fertilizer 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Sage will end up being very woody within 3-4 years of planting and need to be replaced with brand-new plants. Collecting sage is finest gathered just before blooming when the important oil content of the leaves is greatest. Sage must be harvested by cutting the leading 20 cm (8 in) of tender growth with a sharp knife. Industrial fields may be harvested by mowing however the highest quality product is accomplished by gathering only the leaves. [5]

Cooking sage types

The two primary kinds of sage that are grown for their culinary uses include ‘berggarten ‘, or standard german sage, and the ever-popular ‘broadleaf ‘. While many people prefer to grow garden sage for cooking and its abundant flavor, broadleaf sage has a milder taste, making it preferable for pickling or adding to dishes and even cheese.

Garden sage is a sturdy seasonal if you reside in strength zones 5-8 in the united states. It’s also resistant to insects and diseases, so while you will require to get rid of small insects from the plant, it will not require much work from you to keep it healthy.

Typical sage

Also called: culinary sage, garden sage.

Scientific name: salvia officinalis.

Typical sage leaves

Common sage is a popular herb that is grown for both medicinal and cooking usages. It’s an easy-to-grow seasonal plant that can deal with most of the harsher environments in the northern united states, as well as in cooler areas.

It grows finest in raised beds with clayey soils completely sun to partial shade. Make certain it has total drain. You must likewise look for good air blood circulation around this plant to assist prevent bugs such as spider termites from ruining it or contaminating it with diseases.

Broadleaf sage

Likewise referred to as: cooking sage.

Broadleaf sage

Taxonomic name: salvia nemorosa ‘spicy world’ an excellent plant to add to your vegetable garden if you like matching fresh herbs with meals. The leaves can be utilized in both tasty meals or desserts. This variety of sage is also an excellent option if there are kids (or animals) in your house due to the fact that it has a milder taste than other kinds of sage. It likewise works well for pickling and flavoring oils, vinegars, butters and cheeses.

Golden sage

Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis ‘aurea’ and salvia officinialis ‘icterina’.

Golden sage

Golden sage has a less pungent flavor than normal garden sage, and often has a slight citrus flavor.

Golden sage doesn’t fare very well in cooler climates and tends to be more sensitive to modifications in light or temperature than other types of sage. These garden varieties tend to be more sensitive to other pests and illness also. However it is durable to about 20 degrees fahrenheit but can grow back from the roots if exposed to colder temperatures.

Russian sage

Taxonomic name: perovskia atriplicifolia.

Russian sage

Russian sage is a stunning and fragrant flowering plant, but it can likewise be grown for cooking purposes. Belonging to russia, main asia and turkey, this perennial herb is durable in usda zones 4 through 9 with a preference for zones 5 through 8. It has long flowering periods that run into fall or winter and often reseeds itself the following spring.

The colors of russian sage flowers and leaves are mainly tones of purple. As a seasonal, they can mature to 2 feet high with 2-inch long leaves growing in opposite pairs on the stem. The blooms are typically violet to pinkish or purple but may likewise be white.

Herbalists consider this plant slightly astringent and typically utilize it as a hair rinse for dry or fragile hair. It is likewise efficient in alleviating swelling of your mucous membranes, such as those found in the throat or mouth and nasal passages.

An infusion of russian sage has been used to treat colds, aching throats and coughs when contributed to beverages such as tea.

Italian sage

Also called: italian fragrant sage.

Taxonomic name: salvia officinalis ‘italian’.

Italian sage

Italian sage has large violet flowers with grey leaves. This variety of cooking sage isn’t commonly utilized for medicinal functions, and it is a great option if you wish to grow it for ornamental reasons. It matures to 2 feet tall with opposite, ovate leaves that are about 1 inch in length.

Greek sage

Also known as: salvia cypria.

Taxonomic name: salvia fruticosa.

Greek sage

Typical uses: this type of sage is native to the mediterranean region and is utilized mostly for ornamental factors. It grows up to 3 feet tall with slim stems and dark green leaves. Its blue-purple flowers are frequently used in bouquets and dried flower arrangements.

Greek sage is durable in usda zones 5 through 9 and prefers to grow completely sun. It belongs to the mint family, so it can self-sow if given adequate water.

Greek sage represent 50-95% ( of the dried sage sold in the United States and Canada, so to state it’s popular is an understatement.

Scarlet sage

Also known as: scarlet salvia.

Scientific name: salvia splendens.

Scarlet sage

A distinct range of sage with dynamic red or purple flowers, this plant has a really aromatic fragrance that can be used to make a wide range of herbal products. The growing tips are the most powerful part of the plant, however you can likewise harvest them for usage in sachets or other scented products. You can even dry and crush the leaves to develop your own potpourri.

Plants will reach around 2 feet high and expanded into a dense bush with their classic oval green leaves. Like numerous perennials, you need to cut down on water throughout the winter months when temperatures drop below freezing.

Pineapple sage

Likewise referred to as: sweet sage.

Scientific name: salvia elegans.

Pineapple sage

This range gets its name from the sweet smell it has when it flowers. Pineapple sage likewise grows well as a decorative herb with small purple flowers and green leaves. You can use this range to make both a tea and cast or harvest the leaves for later usage.

Common uses for this plant include assisting indigestion, minimizing pain associated with menstrual cramps, relaxing symptoms of anxiety and assisting you get a relaxing night’s sleep.

Pineapple sage is sturdy in usda zones 5 through 9 with a choice for zones 7 through 8. It is a yearly blooming plant that can grow up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet large. It has soft green leaves that are slightly serrated, offering it an unique appearance when compared to other plants in the salvia genus.

Pineapple sage is popular for its fragrant purple flowers with yellow centers however also makes an appealing decorative plant due to its dark green foliage and low-growing stature. The blossoms will appear from late summertime into fall or early winter season on this hardy annual. They have a pineapple scent that draws in bees and butterflies while adding color to your garden beds during those months when many other blooming herbs fail to do so.

The small flowers are largely packed together with their purplish-red petals radiating from a yellow center. The plant itself will mature to 4 feet tall, but it can also spread out into a wider bush with some pruning and proper care.

White sage

Taxonomic name: salvia apiana.

White sage

White sage has silvery gray leaves and is frequently utilized as the typical “sage burning” sage. Belonging to the southwestern regions of the united states and mexico. It is generally dried for ritualistic usage, burning as a smudge stick. White sage has a strong, pine-like scent with a smokey finish. It is extremely valued for ritualistic usage by many native individuals.

Many ranges of white sage are not advised for culinary usage since they tend to have more of a burnt taste than other ranges. White sage is also extremely hardy, and can be grown in zones 5 to 9.

Mealycup sage

Scientific name: salvia farinacea.

Mealycup sage

Mealycup sage is belonging to texas and the desert locations of brand-new mexico. The leaves are blue-green or grey, with downy hairs below, and grow close together along the stems that can grow between 12 and 24 inches tall. Mealycup sage is likewise called texas tarragon due to the fact that it tastes like its french cousin when used in cooking. Herbalists utilize this plant to assist soothe indigestions, reduce stress and deal with diarrhea.

The flowers on the mealycup sage are lilac-blue, white or pink depending upon the variety you select. This sturdy perennial grows best in usda zones 8 through 11 but will grow in zone 6 if offered the right amount of water. You can cut down on the quantity you offer it during the cold weather when temperature levels drop below freezing. Simply don’t allow the plant to wilt totally.

Mealycup sage must be planted in a warm spot in either complete or partial sun and watered frequently. Nevertheless, this particular range does not succeed with overwatering– keep the soil slightly dry in between watering sessions. This is specifically real if utilizing a drip watering system– excessive water will eliminate your plant off rather quickly. If you use sprinklers, wait up until after sunset so the leaves have time to fully dry prior to morning dew appears.

The seeds for mealycup sage are white and grow within pods that are normally around 1 inch.

Mexican bush sage

Taxonomic name: salvia leucantha.

Mexican bush sage

This range of sage is belonging to mexico and main america. It grows in between 2 and 3 feet tall and has actually deeply colored, dark green foliage. Mexican bush sage is frequently utilized as a border plant in the landscape due to its capability to grow on high slopes and stand up to heat conditions with regular watering.

The small purple flowers bloom from july through september on this durable seasonal plant but you can likewise collect leaves for tea or drying when it blooms so the plant remains healthy.

You may discover that pinch back your mexican bush sage every couple of years during early spring at around 10 inches high if you prefer it as just a decorative flower since they are extremely large bushes once they get to a specific size.

Berggarten sage

Scientific name: artemisia berggardiana.

Berggarten sage

This range of sage is typically used for decorative functions because of its appealing gray-green leaves. It grows in between 1 and 2 ′ high with a spread of as much as 3 ′. As the name recommends, berggarten sage grows best in an environment zone 7 or higher but will do alright in zones 5 through 9 if provided the right amount of water– it doesn’t like to dry completely!

The flowers flower blue from mid-july into august on this durable seasonal plant, but you can likewise gather fresh leaves throughout summer for usage in your culinary creations so the plant stays healthy. If you pinch the tips off of your berggarten sage every couple of years in early spring at about 8 inches tall, you can motivate it to grow bushier and thicker.

Woodland sage

Likewise known as: wood sage.

Scientific name: salvia nemorosa.

Forest sage

Woodland sage is a perennial plant that grows to about 3 feet in height and has green leaves with purple markings. The plant can be utilized as a border for open woods or planted near taller plants. The fragrance of the blossoms is said to draw in bees, butterflies, and birds.

Woodland sage spreads by roots, and while they don’t trigger any damage, they do grow on top of the ground. For this reason, woodlands sage is often grown in containers or raised beds. These plants can be grown in usda zones 4 through 8 and are relatively dry spell tolerant throughout the summertime.

Woodland sage is typically utilized for medical purposes. It has actually been known to deal with uneasiness, vomiting, and diarrhea. The leaves are also utilized for teas in some cultures as a treatment for colds, coughs, and fevers.

It can be grown outdoors or as part of an indoor garden but is regularly found growing outside near the woods or other gardens where it tends to prosper best. This plant is finest grown from seed and it is important not to overwater or fertilize woodland sage plants. [6]

Benefits of sage

Sage is a staple herb in different foods around the globe.

Its other names consist of typical sage, garden sage and salvia officinalis. It belongs to the mint household, alongside other herbs like oregano, rosemary, basil and thyme.

Sage has a strong scent and earthy taste, which is why it’s typically used in percentages. However, it’s packed with a variety of crucial nutrients and substances.

Sage is likewise utilized as a natural cleaner, pesticide and ritual things in spiritual sage burning or smudging.

This green herb is available fresh, dried or in oil kind– and has various health benefits.

Here are 12 surprising health benefits of sage.

High in a number of nutrients

Sage loads a healthy dosage of vitamins and minerals.

One teaspoon (0.7 grams) of ground sage contains:.

  • Calories: 2
  • Protein: 0.1 grams
  • Carbs: 0.4 grams
  • Fat: 0.1 grams
  • Vitamin k: 10% of the
  • Recommendation daily intake (rdi)
  • Iron: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Vitamin b6: 1.1% of the rdi
  • Calcium: 1% of the rdi
  • Manganese: 1% of the rdi

As you can see, a small amount of sage loads 10% of your everyday vitamin k requirements (2trusted source).

Sage likewise consists of percentages of magnesium, zinc, copper and vitamins a, c and e.

What’s more, this aromatic spice homes caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all of which play a role in its beneficial health effects.

Considering that it’s consumed in tiny quantities, sage offers just small amounts of carbs, calories, protein and fiber.

Summary sage is

Rich in nutrients– particularly vitamin k– despite being low in calories. One.

Teaspoon (0.7 grams) boasts 10% of your day-to-day vitamin k needs.

Loaded with antioxidants

Anti-oxidants are particles that help fortify your body’s defenses, neutralizing possibly damaging totally free radicals that are linked to chronic diseases.

Sage contains over 160 distinct polyphenols, which are plant-based chemical substances that serve as anti-oxidants in your body.

Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid and rutin– all discovered in sage– are connected to excellent health benefits, such as a lower risk of cancer and improved brain function and memory.

One research study found that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of sage tea twice day-to-day considerably increased antioxidant defenses. It likewise lowered both total cholesterol and “bad” ldl cholesterol, in addition to raised “good” hdl cholesterol.

Summary sage is

Filled with anti-oxidants that are linked to a number of health advantages, including.

Enhanced brain function and lower cancer danger.

May support oral health

Sage has antimicrobial results, which can reduce the effects of microbes that promote oral plaque.

In one study, a sage-based mouthwash was shown to efficiently kill the streptococcus mutans bacteria, which is infamous for causing dental cavities.

In a test-tube research study, a sage-based vital oil was revealed to kill and stop the spread of candida albicans, a fungus that might also cause cavities.

One review kept in mind that sage may deal with throat infections, dental abscesses, infected gums and mouth ulcers. However, more human research is needed to make extensive recommendations.

Summary sage

Has antimicrobial residential or commercial properties that might eliminate microorganisms that motivate the growth.

Of oral plaque.

May ease menopause symptoms

During menopause, your body experiences a natural decline in the hormonal agent estrogen. This can cause a wide range of undesirable signs.

Signs consist of hot flashes, extreme sweating, vaginal dryness and irritability.

Common sage was traditionally utilized to decrease menopause signs.

It’s believed that substances in sage have estrogen-like properties, permitting them to bind to specific receptors in your brain to help enhance memory and treat hot flashes and excessive sweating.

In one research study, daily use of a sage supplement substantially lowered the number and strength of hot flashes over eight weeks.

Summary sage

May help reduce the strength and frequency of menopause symptoms, such as hot

Flashes and irritability.

May reduce blood sugar levels

The leaves of common sage have been utilized typically as a remedy versus diabetes.

Human and animal research indicates that it may help lower blood sugar level levels.

In one study, sage extract decreased blood glucose levels in rats with type 1 diabetes by triggering a particular receptor. When this receptor is activated, it can assist clear excess complimentary fatty acids in the blood, which in turn improves insulin sensitivity.

Another research study in mice with type 2 diabetes found that sage tea imitates metformin– a drug recommended to manage blood sugar level in people with the exact same illness.

In human beings, sage leaf extract has actually been shown to lower blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity with a similar result as rosiglitazone, another anti-diabetes drugs.

However, there is still insufficient evidence to suggest sage as a diabetes treatment. More human research is needed.

Summary while

Sage may lower blood glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity, more human research is required.

May support memory and brain health

Sage can help support your brain and memory in a number of methods

For one, it’s loaded with compounds that can act as antioxidants, which have actually been revealed to buffer your brain’s defense system.

It also appears to halt the breakdown of the chemical messenger acetylcholine (ach), which has a role in memory. Ach levels appear to fall in alzheimer’s illness.

In one study, 39 individuals with mild to moderate alzheimer’s disease taken in either 60 drops (2 ml) of a sage extract supplement or a placebo daily for four months.

Those taking the sage extract carried out better on tests that determined memory, problem-solving, thinking and other cognitive abilities.

In healthy adults, sage was revealed to improve memory in low dosages. Greater doses also raised state of mind and increased alertness, peace and contentedness.

In both more youthful and older adults, sage appears to improve memory and brain function.

Summary studies

Show that sage may enhance memory, brain function and signs of alzheimer’s.


May lower ‘bad’ ldl cholesterol

Every minute, more than one person in the us dies from heart disease.

High “bad” ldl cholesterol is an essential cardiovascular disease risk factor, affecting one in three americans.

Sage may assist lower “bad” ldl cholesterol, which can develop in your arteries and potentially cause damage.

In one research study, consuming sage tea twice day-to-day decreased “bad” ldl cholesterol and overall blood cholesterol while raising “good” hdl cholesterol after simply 2 weeks.

A number of other human studies highlight a similar effect with sage extract.

Summary consumption

Of sage and sage items have been shown to decrease “bad” ldl cholesterol levels.

And raise “good” hdl cholesterol levels.

May protect versus specific cancers

Cancer is a leading cause of death in which cells grow unusually.

Interestingly, animal and test-tube studies show that sage might fight particular kinds of cancer, including those of the mouth, colon, liver, cervix, breast, skin and kidney.

In these research studies, sage extracts not just suppress the development of cancer cells but likewise promote cell death.

While this research is motivating, human studies are needed to identify whether sage works at battling cancer in humans.

Summary test-tube

And animal research study recommend that sage might fight specific cancer cells, though.

Human research study is needed.

Other potential health benefits

Sage and its substances are connected to several other health advantages.

Nevertheless, these advantages have actually not been extensively looked into.

May ease diarrhea: fresh sage is a.

Standard treatment for diarrhea. Test-tube and animal research studies found that.

It consists of compounds that might alleviate diarrhea by relaxing your diet.

May assistance bone health: vitamin k,

Which sage uses in large amounts, plays a role in bone health. A shortage in this vitamin.

Is linked to bone thinning and fractures.

May combat skin aging: several test-tube

Research studies suggest that sage substances may help fight signs of aging, such as wrinkles.

Summary sage

Has been connected to other prospective health advantages, such as eliminating diarrhea,.

Supporting bone health and combatting skin aging.

Easy to add to your diet

Sage comes in several types and can be utilized in a range of methods.

Fresh sage leaves have a strong aromatic flavor and are best used sparingly in meals.

Here are some methods you can include fresh sage to your diet plan:.

  • Sprinkle as a garnish on soups.
  • Mix into a stuffing in roast meals.
  • Combine sliced leaves with butter to make sage butter.
  • Include sliced leaves to tomato sauce.
  • Serve it with eggs in an omelet.

Dried sage is often chosen by cooks and comes ground, rubbed or in entire leaves.

Here are some methods you can utilize dried sage:.

  • As a rub for meats.
  • As a spices for roasted veggies.
  • Integrated with mashed potatoes or squash for earthy taste.

You can likewise buy sage products, such as sage tea and sage extract supplements.

Summary sage is

Incredibly flexible and simple to add to soups, stews and baked dishes. It’s.

Available fresh, dried or ground. [7]

Possible adverse effects

When consumed as a spice in food, sage is thought about safe for grownups and children.

Healthcare experts typically agree that:.

Sage ought to be safe when taken in medicinal quantities for no more than 2 months.

Sage might be hazardous when it’s taken in high dosages or for a long time. Some species of sage, consisting of typical sage (salvia officinalis), include a chemical called thujone. Excessive thujone can trigger seizures and harm the liver and nervous system.

Sage applied to the skin is perhaps safe when used for up to one week.

Sage vital oil, inhaled as aromatherapy, should be safe. Like some other necessary oils, sage oil can be toxic and should never be taken orally. Even when used topically, the oil needs to be diluted or it might cause rash or inflammation.

Sage can likewise make anticonvulsant drugs less efficient if utilized in excess, including phenobarbital, mysoline (primidone), depakote (valproic acid), neurontin (gabapentin), tegretol (carbamazepine), and dilantin (phenytoin).

The extreme use of sage if you’re taking diabetes medications can set off a potentially serious drop in blood sugar level, causing hypoglycemia. If you use sage pills or extracts, never ever consume more than the advised dose on the item label. Sage medications need to be utilized with caution in people with impaired kidney function.

Inform your doctor about any medications you’re taking, consisting of herbal solutions like sage, so that you’re completely aware of the possible interactions and dangers. [8]


Dosages of 300 and 600 mg of dried sage leaf have been examined in state of mind and cognitive efficiency research studies. A standardized s. Officinalis ethanolic extract at a dosage of 333 mg was used in a research study assessing its impacts on memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. A common dosage has been described as 4 to 6 g/day of the sage leaf. [9]


Drying medications (anticholinergic drugs) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase levels of particular chemicals in the body that work in the brain, heart, and somewhere else. Some drying medications called “anticholinergic drugs” can likewise these very same chemicals, however in a different way. These drying medications may decrease the effects of these sage types, and these sage species may decrease the effects of drying medications.

A few of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, some medications utilized for allergic reactions (antihistamines), and some medications used for depression (antidepressants).

Estrogens interaction score: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Geraniol, a chemical in spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia), might have a few of the very same results as estrogen. Nevertheless, geraniol discovered in spanish sage isn’t as strong as estrogen pills. Taking spanish sage in addition to estrogen pills may reduce the results of estrogen tablets.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c19 (cyp2c19) substrates) interaction rating: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage together with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and negative effects of some medications. Prior to taking sage as a medicine, speak to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver include omeprazole (prilosec), lansoprazole (prevacid), and pantoprazole (protonix); diazepam (valium); carisoprodol (soma); nelfinavir (viracept); and others.

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2c9 (cyp2c9) substrates) interaction rating: moderate beware with this mix. Talk with your health supplier.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage may reduce how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage together with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the results and negative effects of some medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk with your doctor if you take any medications that are altered by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of diclofenac (cataflam, voltaren), ibuprofen (motrin), meloxicam (mobic), and piroxicam (feldene); celecoxib (celebrex); amitriptyline (elavil); warfarin (coumadin); glipizide (glucotrol); losartan (cozaar); and others.

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) substrates) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Sage might decrease how rapidly the body breaks down some medications. Taking sage along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the results and negative effects of your medication. Prior to taking sage as a medicine, speak with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the body consist of amitriptyline (elavil), codeine, desipramine (norpramin), flecainide (tambocor), fluoxetine (prozac), ondansetron (zofran), tramadol (ultram), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (cytochrome p450 2e1 (cyp2e1) substrates) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Typical sage might increase how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking common sage along with some medications that are altered by the liver may decrease the results and negative effects of your medication. Prior to taking common sage as a medicine, speak with your doctor if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are altered by the liver consist of acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (parafon specialty), ethanol, theophylline, and substance abuse for anesthesia throughout surgery such as enflurane (ethrane), halothane (fluothane), isoflurane (forane), and methoxyflurane (penthrane).

Medications altered by the liver (cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) substrates) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are altered and broken down by the liver. Sage may reduce how rapidly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking sage in addition to some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the impacts and adverse effects of these medications. Before taking sage as a medicine, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Medications that might be impacted consist of particular heart medications called calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (alfenta), cisapride (propulsid), fentanyl (sublimaze), lidocaine (xylocaine), losartan (cozaar), midazolam (versed), and others.

Medications for alzheimer’s illness (acetylcholinesterase (pains) inhibitors) interaction ranking: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase specific chemicals in the brain, heart, and somewhere else in the body. Some medications utilized for alzheimer’s illness likewise impact these chemicals. Taking these types of sage in addition to medications for alzheimer’s disease may increase effects and adverse effects of medications used for alzheimer’s illness.

Medications for diabetes (antidiabetes drugs) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Sage may decrease blood sugar level. Diabetes medications are likewise used to lower blood sugar. Taking sage together with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication may need to be altered.

Some medications used for diabetes consist of glimepiride (amaryl), glyburide (diabeta, glynase prestab, micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (actos), rosiglitazone (avandia), chlorpropamide (diabinese), glipizide (glucotrol), tolbutamide (orinase), and others.

Medications for hypertension (antihypertensive drugs) interaction rating: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health supplier.

Common sage (salvia officinalis) appears to lower blood pressure. Taking common sage in addition to medications for high blood pressure may trigger your high blood pressure to go too low. On the other hand, spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase high blood pressure. Taking spanish sage together with medications for hypertension may minimize the impacts of these medications.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), losartan (cozaar), valsartan (diovan), diltiazem (cardizem), amlodipine (norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (hydrodiuril), furosemide (lasix), and numerous others.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (p-glycoprotein substrates) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health service provider.

Some medications are moved by pumps into cells. Typical sage (salvia officinalis) might make these pumps less active and increase just how much of some medications get taken in by the body. This might increase the adverse effects of some medications.

Some medications that are moved by these pumps include etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine, ketoconazole, itraconazole, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, cimetidine, ranitidine, diltiazem, verapamil, corticosteroids, erythromycin, cisapride (propulsid), fexofenadine (allegra), cyclosporine, loperamide (imodium), quinidine, and others.

Medications utilized to prevent seizures (anticonvulsants) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health provider.

Medications utilized to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Sage might also affect chemicals in the brain. By impacting chemicals in the brain, sage might decrease the effectiveness of medications utilized to prevent seizures.

Some medications utilized to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (mysoline), valproic acid (depakene), gabapentin (neurontin), carbamazepine (tegretol), phenytoin (dilantin), and others.

Sedative medications (benzodiazepines) interaction score: moderate beware with this combination. Talk with your health provider.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) might trigger sleepiness and sleepiness. Medications that trigger drowsiness and sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking common sage together with sedative medications might trigger excessive sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (klonopin), diazepam (valium), lorazepam (ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (cns depressants) interaction ranking: moderate be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health company.

Sage might cause drowsiness and drowsiness. Medications that causes sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage together with sedative medications may cause excessive sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (klonopin), lorazepam (ativan), phenobarbital (donnatal), zolpidem (ambien), and others.

Various medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions (cholinergic drugs) interaction rating: moderate be cautious with this mix. Talk with your health service provider.

Typical sage (salvia officinalis) and spanish sage (salvia lavandulaefolia) may increase certain chemicals in the brain, heart, and elsewhere in the body. Some medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s illness, and other conditions likewise impact these chemicals. Taking these species of sage with these medications might increase the possibility of adverse effects.

Some of these medications utilized for glaucoma, alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions include pilocarpine (pilocar and others), donepezil (aricept), tacrine (cognex), and others. [10]


Contraindicated in:.

  • Hypersensitivity;
  • Pregnancy and lactation.

Use cautiously in:.

  • Seizure disorders;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Diabetes [11]


The goal of this paper is to examine the current developments in the exploration of sage (salvia species) as phytotherapy and to highlight its prospective as a restorative representative. Salvia species might represent a natural, safe, and effective treatment for many illness and their symptoms. In current decades, with the increase in pharmacological knowledge about the advantageous results of sage, especially s. Officinalis, these organic medications with antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, complimentary radical scavenging, and antitumor activities have been found to be very efficient in the advancement of novel natural drugs to prevent, control, and deal with numerous minor illness along with more major and complicated illness such as diabetes, alzheimer’s, and cancer. It should be remembered that clinicians need to remain mindful till more definite studies demonstrate the security, quality, and efficacy of s. Officinalis. For these factors, comprehensive medicinal and chemical experiments, together with human metabolic studies must be the focus of our future research studies, and further potential of s. Officinalis needs to be utilized in new healing drugs and supply a basis for future research study on the application of medicinal plants. [12]


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