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Dietary antioxidants such as beta carotene, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E are known as the least harmful and most holistically beneficial supplements with antioxidant capacity. Vitamin C supplements are especially readily available over the counter due to the fact that they are totally safe to consume.
All we understand usually about vitamin C is that it can benefit poor injury healing and bleeding gums, guarantee healthy skin, and increase immunity such as against the acute rhinitis. The supplements are more than just manufacturers of connective tissue. They are the picked by health specialists to enhance iron absorption in iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous vitamin C supplements increase cardiovascular health and benefit breast cancer.
There is a lot more to keeping an optimum vitamin C content, which we will be going over in detail in this short article.
Health Advantages of Vitamin C Supplementation
National Institutes of Health specialists have actually suggested the consumption of vitamin C in addition to other antioxidant vitamin consumption for any ages as a turning point for nationwide health. Diet plan and way of life nowadays are quickly conducive to cardiovascular danger. Fruits and vegetables can not make up for the requirements of the body for antioxidant supplements.
Here we have actually combined all the health benefits of vitamin C supplements for numerous conditions and for normal, healthy people:
Role of Plasma Vitamin C against Viral and Bacterial Diseases
Vitamin C administration has been seen to improve the action of the body to bacterial and viral illness in the body. Its role as a dietary supplement against virus-induced breathing illnesses is of unique value.
Randomized scientific trials have revealed that plasma vitamin C can significantly decrease the duration of respiratory infections such as colds and influenza. Also, the severity of the signs is less in patients who took the supplements. Nevertheless, research study has not yet proved if vitamin C might altogether prevent or treat breathing or viral infections such as the common cold.
The anti-inflammatory role and immune-boosting benefits of vitamin C play a vital role in keeping back viral and bacterial illness. This is how the supplements can prevent cold and flu from progressing into pneumonia or debilitating lung infections.
In a placebo-controlled trial, consumption of vitamin C supplements decreased the incidence of viral respiratory disease by 8 percent in grownups and 18 percent in children. Clients in the ICU report minimized plasma levels of vitamin C. And supplementation with vitamin C has actually shown a reducing of their duration on the ventilator.
These facts are essential in understanding and managing the novel COVID-19 disease. A study including 19 active COVID-19 clients exposed that 18 out of 19 patients had undetectable plasma levels of vitamin C.
Vitamin C might Decrease the Risk of Cancer
The meta-analysis of 5 randomized regulated trials revealed that higher dietary vitamin C can have a multi-faceted link with all types of cancer danger and occurrence. A research study involving almost 45 thousand individuals revealed a 26 percent reduction in cancer danger for every 50 μmol/ L boost in the ascorbic concentration in the blood.
Plasma concentrations of vitamin C are carefully interlinked with the threat and incidence of lung and breast cancer. Meta-analysis of 21 mate and case-control randomized controlled trials showed that when an individual begins smoking, the vitamin C levels in the body start to reduce.
The same observation has been made in clients with lung cancer. Considering that cigarette smoking and lung cancer have a relationship of cause and effect, we can securely say that lung cancer development is also based on lower-than-normal serum levels of vitamin C.
Vitamin C consumption has been linked to the incidence and survival of breast cancer. Its high intake has been revealed to minimize the danger of breast cancer in high-risk people, such as those with a genetic predisposition and post-menopausal ladies. More than avoidance of breast cancer, vitamin C consumption is connected with lowering mortality and reoccurrence of the disease.
The most high-yield result of vitamin C supplements in the treatment and management of cancer is their cytotoxic impact. Vitamin C catalyzes a series of reactions that lead to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, which is toxic to cancer cells.
In one research study, high-dose ascorbic acid also reported advantageous effects in improving the radiosensitivity of some cancer cells. Intravenous vitamin C has shown much better outcomes than oral ascorbic acid for such advantages.
Vitamin C Advantages your Skin in Multiple Ways
The most popular benefit of vitamin C is because of its antioxidant effects. It is the most potent and the most plentiful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in the skin. Firstly, it secures versus the skin damage induced by the reactive free radicals and the UV rays of the sun.
When UV rays of the sun fall on the skin, superoxide and peroxide representatives are generated from the cell membranes of the skin cells. Vitamin C directly neutralizes these damaging representatives.
The UV-protective role of Vitamin C indirectly also safeguards versus photoaging of the skin. These UV rays can likewise damage the DNA of the skin cell nuclei and insert thymine dimers, which brings anomaly. This anomaly is the main offender behind the debilitating disease Xeroderma pigmentosum.
Hence, vitamin C plays a protective function versus skin cancers brought on by UV damage. It can function as a powerful anti-inflammatory agent for skin problem such as acne and rosacea. It straight prevents the NF-KB pathway, which generates the inflammation-causing agents.
By inhibiting the production of inflammatory agents such as the tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8, body vitamin C can minimize the inflammatory factors of acne. This system is not only helpful for those with acne, but it also slows the aging of regular, healthy skin.
Vitamin C is the best depigmentation agent your skin can utilize. Vitamin C hinders melanogenesis, unlike other depigmenting agents that damage and kill melanocytes. That suggests it just communicates with the process and does not trigger permanent damage to essential hormone-producing cells of the brain.
Vitamin C strengthens the skin barrier and, in this way, it likewise assists in wound recovery. The primary mechanism of skin-strengthening is stimulating collagen synthesis by directly promoting collagen gene expression. Besides, Vitamin C formulations are readily available for topical usage and are completely safe for intake.
These advantages of vitamin C for the skin are not complementary. Rather, they are necessary for typical skin development and health. That is why its shortage is a threat factor for several skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and porphyria cutanea tarda. Also, the supplements can assist treat these diseases in addition to the herpes zoster and deadly melanoma of the skin.
Vitamin C Supplements Benefit the Eye
Age-related macular degeneration is a slow and persistent process associated with atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, age, and vitamin deficiencies. The central part of the retina undergoes slow degeneration and loses its optimum function.
Vitamin C can lower the danger of cataracts in high-risk clients such as older grownups. This occurs by the collagen synthesis results of vitamin C. Collagen strengthens the structure of the eye and provides stability against age-related macular degeneration.
Its adequate levels in the plasma would halt the generalized swelling and atherosclerosis in the blood vessels and thus likewise avoid age-related macular degeneration.
Another system of action of vitamin C is by fighting against the reactive oxygen species and the destructive free radicals. Really, the capillary supplying the retina of the eye are end arteries. They have blind ends and do not offer additional branches in the retina. When the damage happens, the retinal tissues are damaged and die instantly, and there will be no way back.
Vision loss, threat of cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration all connect to chronic inflammatory conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. The lens of the eye itself is immersed in an ocular fluid abundant in vitamin C. In both these situations, vitamin C has the very same antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function.
Cognitive Advantages of Vitamin C Supplements
Vitamin C plays a vital function in the collagen synthesis procedures, strengthening the connective tissue throughout the body. It is likewise associated with the synthesis of some really crucial physiological compounds such as carnitine, cholesterol, amino acids, and proteins. But its main function that benefits cognitive function is its antioxidant impact.
Vitamin C oxidizes itself and reduces the effects of the reactive oxygen species and superoxide radicals. This way, it protects cellular DNA, membrane proteins, and lipids from the oxidative damage of the extremely harmful totally free radicals.
By these major results, vitamin C protects the hippocampus against aging, oxidative damage, and loss of function and enhances memory. There are different other mechanisms, too: vitamin C is straight involved in the maturation and differentiation of the neurons. It is a vital cofactor associated with forming myelin sheaths of the nerves, speeding up the nerve impulse conduction throughout the nerve cells.
Vitamin C is also involved in synthesizing the crucial neurotransmitter dopamine for serotonin and after that assists in the release of neurotransmitters. These observations have caused making use of vitamin C in the diet plan and drug programs for peripheral neuropathy.
Peripheral neuropathy is a condition defined by damage to the nerves in the limbs, mostly discovered in late-stage diabetics. Considering that the retina of the eye is likewise considered a part of the central nerve system, the above-mentioned mechanisms likewise recommend its use for eye health.
Clients with Post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) report low serum levels of vitamin C. And thus supplementation with ascorbic acid can assist manage the syndrome better.
PTSD is the outcome of single prolonged tension (SPS), which has been seen to increase the level of oxidized glutathione and increase the lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus.
A research study compared the vitamin C levels between the cognitively intact and the cognitively impaired groups of people. The outcomes revealed that cognitively undamaged or remarkable individuals had greater mean concentrations of vitamin C than the cognitively impaired ones.
Vitamin C may Manage High Blood Pressures
According to the Johns Hopkins School University of Medication, high vitamin C intake for two months lowered the systolic blood pressure by almost 4 points typically and the diastolic blood pressure by 1.5 points.
The dosages used for this research study were around 500 milligrams each day, whereas the advised dietary intake for grownups is 90 milligrams of ascorbic acid per day.
You see, vitamin C is a naturally discovered micronutrient and is water-soluble. Our body can not retain or keep for long times. So, to gain from vitamin C for persistent illness such as high blood pressure, it ought to be taken frequently.
Vitamin C can not replace blood pressure medications to treat hypertension. However the most reliable treatment for hypertension is the lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, and vitamin C can heavily contribute there.
High blood pressure, particularly as a consequence of diabetes mellitus, can likewise speed up the age-related macular degeneration in the eye. Preserving regular ascorbic acid concentrations throughout life can prevent and secure versus such chronic inflammatory conditions and their problems.
Vitamin C may protect against Cardiovascular Diseases
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function of vitamins is very beneficial versus the threat, morbidity, and death of the cardiovascular disease, and at the same time enhances cardiovascular health in regular, healthy individuals. This is due to the fact that ascorbic acid can prevent atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness and enhance lipid profile and endothelial function by reducing the effects of reactive oxygen types.
Vitamin C has actually been seen to potentiate the production and effects of vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide protects the capillary against vasoconstriction, myogenic convulsions, and coagulation abnormalities.
Stroke, cardiovascular heart disease, and cardiac arrest are all directly linked to the antioxidant status of a person. By securing the capillary and heart vasculature against oxidative damage, dietary anti-oxidants, including vitamin C, can really assist improve the quality of life and morbidity in clients with heart diseases.
A study followed a group of individuals for 10 years to conclude the association of plasma vitamin C concentrations with heart disease. It concluded that the individuals utilizing artificial or natural vitamin C sources had a 25 % lower risk of developing heart problem.
Its high dose, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, reported a greater decrease in the risk aspects of heart disease and enhanced the total cardiovascular health. An analysis of almost 200 studies concluded that taking vitamin C decreased the blood levels of LDL cholesterol by 7.9 mg/dL and triglycerides by 20 mg/dL.
For even more advantages versus cardiovascular disease and typically improved cardiovascular health, some researchers recommend vitamin C intake, not supplements. Major food sources include vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits.
Women’s antioxidant cardiovascular study mentioned that antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C, beta carotene, and vitamin E are particularly helpful in post-menopausal women when it comes to cardiovascular health. Vitamin C sources should be an essential dietary regimen in women of age above 45.
Advantages of Taking Vitamin C with Meals
Consumption of vitamin C with foods abundant in iron increases the absorption of iron by 67 %. Dietary supplements for iron are extremely costly. However the exact same iron is life-saving for patients with iron shortage anemia, road traffic mishaps, severe blood loss, and anemic infants.
Iron deficiency anemia is a serious condition in children and babies which hinders the development of red cell in the body. Leukocyte vitamin C concentration drops predisposing the individual to the danger of extreme infections.
Individuals can develop iron deficiency anemia easily without visible symptoms and signs. Dangerous groups consist of:
- Pregnant and child-bearing women
- Professional athletes running for marathons
- Pure vegetarians
- Teenagers and rapidly growing kids
- People who contribute blood regularly
Other high-risk groups include those with celiac illness with impaired iron absorption. All these groups can take advantage of synthetic vitamin C or food sources of ascorbic acid, generally citrus fruits. Taking vitamin C with meals will help maximize iron absorption from your diet plan.
Intravenous ascorbic acid can also benefit individuals undergoing hemodialysis with severe or chronic kidney failure. Their kidneys are too damaged to produce enough erythropoietin, and enhancing vitamin C status can assist the body utilize the optimum of its resources.
Vitamin C might Lower Uric Acid Levels
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance (CDC), gout is a condition identified by increased uric acid levels in the blood, which then deposit in the joint cavities. For gout, anything that can minimize the levels of urates in the body will help manage and deal with gout.
An associate study that followed its sample people for 20 years and included 47000 men studied how vitamin C and ascorbic acid levels in the blood connect to the danger, occurrence, and morbidity of gout. The study discovered that taking antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene lowered the risk of gout in prone people.
Another research study performed in 2018 found that individuals who took more vitamin C than the suggested dietary allowance had lower uric acid levels than those who did not. These outcomes suggest the use and effectiveness of antioxidant vitamins such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and ascorbic acid for a better lifestyle for gout patients.
Apart from gout clients, vitamin C reduces urate levels in normal, healthy individuals, as concluded by a study performed in 2011. If you eat a lot of meat, you can utilize sources of vitamin C together with to escape the unfavorable results of excess urate in the body.
According to the nutrition assessment study, gout is an inflammatory disease closely connected to the diet plan and foods. Once it sets in, it quickly progresses to special needs. But antioxidant supplements such as oral vitamin C can assist a great deal slow the procedure down.
Also, due to the fact that this illness makes use of and diminishes the vitamin C levels, testing ascorbic acid in the body may help examine the progression and phase of the disease too.
Oral Vitamin C Helps Boost Resistance
This is most likely the most recorded health advantage of taking the water-soluble vitamin C. Vitamin C may boost and reinforce the immunity of your body at various levels and in various systems.
Firstly, ascorbic acid supplementation straight increases the production of leukocyte, specifically separated T lymphocytes. Oral vitamin or intravenous ascorbic acid can increase the production of double-positive T cells from the cells of the bone marrow, which is quite high-yield in immunocompromised people.
Plasma vitamin C levels not just increase the production and number of active immune cells it likewise helps their function by battling a few of their battles. For example, plasma vitamin C can battle and neutralize the reactive oxygen species and other harmful complimentary radicals. And this not just safeguards the cells and their membranes however also protects the leukocyte content for larger battles.
The above 2 functions can be carried out by any dietary vitamin or antioxidant supplements with antioxidant results such as vitamin E or beta-carotene compounds. An unique result of vitamin C is their function in the skin barrier.
Lower vitamin C concentrations have been associated with low wound recovery, a weak skin barrier, and an increased risk of skin infection. As discussed above, ascorbic acid is a vital part of the collagen biosynthesis pathway. Hence, low vitamin C levels result in weak gums and fragile skin barriers.
In addition to strengthening the physical skin barrier, Vitamin C can enhance the skin defences with their antioxidant properties. These two systems are the foundation of wound healing in the skin and the avoidance of infection.
Suggested mg of Vitamin C
Dietary referral intakes for different ages are various. Suggested dietary vitamin C intake level for an infant as much as 12 months of age falls in the series of 25 to 30 mg daily. And breast milk suffices to please the Vitamin C requirements of an infant.
If the baby can not be breastfed, it is necessary to feed him fortified synthetic feed with adequate vitamin C levels. Its consumption is necessary for the infant for blood cell production, fighting off infection, and sufficient development.
For children of age as much as 8 years, the suggested dietary consumption is around 35 mg daily. A high dosage may be needed in many cases, such as when kids of this age present with iron shortage anemia.
For teens of age as much as 18 years, it is advised that the daily intake ought to be around 40 mg per day. High dosages are safe, however an upper intake level of 1800 mg each day has been suggested.
For adults of age as much as 70 years, RDI levels of 45 mg each day have actually been suggested. Vitamin C is not only essential for adults to prevent major cardiovascular occasions and age-related macular degeneration, but it also offers a holistic uplifting of general health as well.
The advised dosage of vitamin C supplements increases for pregnant and breast feeding moms, and it can hardly be fulfilled with vegetables and fruits.
Exist any Side Effects of Vitamin C Intake?
Supplemental vitamin C is entirely safe for consumption in the advised does for the particular age groups in healthy individuals. In fact, ascorbic acid is counted among the best nutrient intakes in the form of supplements.
To start with, vitamin C is a water-soluble extra vitamin. Besides, vitamin C supplements have a wide range for the upper consumption level. The liver doesn’t keep a big amount of it, and the kidneys get rid of it all the time. So, you won’t need to fret about the negative effects of vitamin C intakes if you are taking them in a moderate, advised dose range.
A typical understanding about vitamin C administration is that when the deficiency happens, the person gets scurvy. At the same time, taking more of it will trigger kidney stone formation. neither of these is completely true nor is entirely incorrect. We will establish this in a later conversation.
Sources of Vitamin C
Fresh vegetables and fruits are the wealthiest sources of vitamin C. They need to be taken raw because vitamin C can not make it through with its antioxidant homes in heat, such as when prepared.
The following are the most popular and wealthiest sources:
- Indian gooseberry
- Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, tomatoes
- Green leafy veggies, generally broccoli
- Kiwifruit, strawberries, and cantaloupes
- Red and green peppers
Fruit juices are also an excellent source together with some animal sources that include animal liver. Due to the fact that animals manufacture their own ascorbic acid and it is saved in the liver, meat lovers can take pleasure in ascorbic acid supplementation with raw animal liver, raw fish, and eggs.
As pointed out prior to too, taking vitamin C with meals, such as having a citrus fruit juice or green peppers, is the very best way to make the most of the absorption of the nutrients from the meal. Plant sources of vitamin c are more abundant and easily readily available. To utilize the animal sources, you may require to consume raw animal products, which is so challenging!
Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin C Deficiency
Low vitamin C content can provide with the following symptoms and signs:
- Its insufficient consumption for 3 to 5 months will lead to keratosis pilaris, which is a condition characterized by loss of connective tissue in the skin. You will establish chicken skin with bumps in the areas of arms, legs, and buttocks.
- Extreme absence of vitamin C is connected with cognitive deficit, mood changes, and anxiety. A meta-analysis of numerous randomized regulated trials showed that scurvy is directly related to cognitive problems and anxiety in the clients.
- Low levels lead to the person sensation tired, fatigued, and weak all the time. Due to the interaction of the ascorbic acid with the neurotransmitters of the brain, low levels result in excessive sleepiness.
- Dry and harmed skin with a dull complexion can also present as an indication of low vitamin C levels.
- One major and a commonly known indication of severe shortage of vitamin C is that the skin swellings quickly. Blood vessels hemorrhage with simply a slight push, and you see blood seeping beneath the skin, forming a bruise.
- Health care experts particularly recommend high dosages of vitamin C for clients of surgical treatment and roadway traffic mishaps because its deficiency can instantly lead to bad injury recovery and superimposed infection.
- Joints are a connective-tissue-rich area of the body. Severe shortage of vitamin C leads to weak joints that hurt on strolling a little distance. Joints might bleed and provide with swelling.
- Severe shortage can also lead to impaired bone development in children and weak bones in grownups.
- Bleeding gums on the tiniest touch and subsequent missing teeth are major effects of deficiency.
- Lack of vitamin C results in the private experiencing more frequent episodes of common cold and influenza, and they last for longer durations also. The threat and morbidity of breathing infections drastically increase with its deficiency because there is a decrease in the basic resistance of the body.
- Lacking individuals might experience unexplained weight gain due to increased swelling and slowed metabolic process of the body.
What will take place if I take too much Vitamin C?
Cases of vitamin C overload in the body are rare. The bearable upper intake level is around 1200 to 15oo mg each day for adults. And the symptoms begin to appear just when the intake exceeds 2000 mg daily.
Excess vitamin C in the body is just possible when it comes to intentional intoxication. If someone takes oral supplements going beyond 2000 mg per day, the following might happen:
- Patients with persistent kidney disease can quickly build up too much vitamin C in the body because of impaired clearance. And it can also result in kidney stones at the same time. Doctor hence should observe discretion in recommending vitamin C supplements to a patient with kidney stones or kidney disease.
- Kidney stones are a later representation of taking too many vitamin C supplements. Early signs and symptoms present as diarrhea and queasiness.
- Vitamin C can not hurt your body for long unless the overdose continues. Meanwhile, it can trigger iron overload as we understand that vitamin C supplementation dramatically increases the absorption of iron from meals.
- Individuals taking vitamin C supplements for age-related macular degeneration may likewise have borderline diabetes. For reasons that are not known, overdose can worsen diabetes mellitus.
Who can Develop Vitamin C Shortage?
Vitamin C is a dietary vitamin with antioxidant properties. It is abundantly readily available in our everyday diet, generally fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits, nevertheless, need to be taken raw considering that vitamin C loses its practical structure throughout heating and cooking.
So, primarily the following groups of individuals are at threat of developing low vitamin C levels:
- The deficiency is a really common event in people going through dialysis. Dialytic vitamin C clearance and generalized swelling deplete its levels in the body.
- Malnutrition is the biggest reason for establishing low vitamin C levels throughout the world. Diet plans with low levels of vitamin C quickly predispose the body to establish the signs and symptoms of shortage.
- Individuals who eat simply the needful however do not integrate fresh vegetables and fruits. Raw fruits and vegetables are the most plentiful and most likely the only authentic dietary source, apart from the supplements.
- You are consuming fruits and vegetables, but they are constantly cooked or steamed. Cooking and heating eliminate the functional vitamin C in the body. This case, too, is a risk aspect for developing the shortage.
- Cigarette smoking is another element that increases the danger of developing the deficiency. Smokers have low vitamin C levels in the body because they use them up much faster.
- Severe and chronic alcohol addiction triggers vitamin C shortage much faster than anything else. It can happen in different ways: increased urine excretion of ascorbic acid, reduced absorption due to chronic diarrhea consequent to alcoholism, poor nutrition, and a diet with low vitamin C levels due to self-neglect.
- Individuals with burns or who have actually gone through a significant surgical treatment might also develop the indications or signs of deficiency due to the fact that such stress circumstances use up the flowing vitamin C material of the body.
Uses of Intravenous Vitamin C
Vitamin C is an antioxidant vitamin that absorbs easily and has practically absolutely no negative effects. In some situations, its intravenous form might be the preferred kind of antioxidant vitamin supplements. Some professionals also use intravenous vitamin c supplementation for self-neglecting clients who will not take oral supplements daily.
By and large, the following are some circumstances where health specialists utilize intravenous vitamin c supplements:
- Health care professionals utilize high-dose vitamin C injections for quick wound recovery. Intravenous injections of 200 mg of vitamin C are offered daily for a week to sustain high dosages of ascorbic acid in the blood. This assists in quick recovery, extreme blood loss in an accident, or healing of the injuries of surgical treatment.
- Dietary supplements or high vitamin C consumption may be recommended for fat loss and weight reduction too.
- High dosages of vitamin C are injected in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Such patients are at high danger of developing infection and vitamin C can assist increase immunity.
- Intravenous supplements of vitamin C can be utilized to back the role and impacts of chemotherapy for cancer.
- Patients who provide with some persistent illness such as arthritis or gout might utilize high-dose vitamin C supplementation for an enhanced lifestyle.
- Bleeding gums and regular missing teeth can take advantage of the collagen-producing and ant-oxidant residential or commercial properties of high-dose vitamin C supplementation.
- Professionals recommend high doses of vitamin C supplements to those at risk for developing cardiovascular disease risk. The high dosage can generally enhance cardiovascular health as well in typical, healthy individuals.
Forms of Oral Supplemental Vitamin C
Typical kinds of synthetic vitamin C include salt ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, and other mineral ascorbic acid types. Antioxidant vitamin C frequently can be found in combination with other anti-oxidants and vitamin supplementations such as beta carotene. Such antioxidant vitamins, when integrated, offer a synergistic result.
All types of vitamin C are present in natural sources such as fresh vegetables and fruits, especially green peppers and citrus fruits.
The Bottom Line
Taking around 40 mg of Vitamin C from a young age will assist fight inflammation and enhance development. More than the recommended dosage in mg of vitamin C is only recommended by your healthcare provider in specific conditions such as those talked about above. Excessive vitamin C is an uncommon incident as is the risk of low levels. Otherwise, go with supplements that have minimum adverse effects.