Vitamin K

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Table of Contents

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is available in 2 types. The primary type is called phylloquinone, found in green leafy vegetables like collard greens, kale, and spinach. The other type, menaquinones, are discovered in some animal foods and fermented foods. Menaquinones can also be produced by germs in the human body.

Vitamin K assists to make various proteins that are needed for blood clotting and the building of bones. Prothrombin is a vitamin K-dependent protein directly included with blood clotting. Osteocalcin is another protein that requires vitamin K to produce healthy bone tissue.

Vitamin K is found throughout the body consisting of the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone. It is broken down very quickly and excreted in urine or stool. Because of this, it hardly ever reaches harmful levels in the body even with high consumptions, as might sometimes accompany other fat-soluble vitamins. [1]

Why do individuals take vitamin K?

Low levels of vitamin K can raise the threat of unrestrained bleeding. While vitamin K shortages are rare in adults, they are really common in newborn infants. A single injection of vitamin K for babies is standard. Vitamin K is also used to counteract an overdose of the blood thinner Coumadin.

While vitamin K shortages are uncommon, you may be at greater threat if you:.

Have a disease that affects absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, such as Crohn’s illness or active celiac disease.

  • Take drugs that interfere with vitamin K absorption
  • Are significantly malnourished
  • Consume alcohol heavily
  • In these cases, a healthcare service provider may recommend vitamin K supplements.

Uses of vitamin K for cancer, for the signs of early morning illness, for the removal of spider veins, and for other conditions are unverified. Discover more about vitamins k2 and d3 along with which foods pack the greatest amount. [2]

Introduction

Vitamin K is available in a variety of different types, known as vitamers. Forms of vitamin K are either phylloquinones (vitamin K1) or menaquinones (vitamin K2). There are various vitamers within the vitamin K2 class, abbreviated as MK-x.

The minimum efficient dosage for phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is 50mcg, which is enough to please the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin K. The maximum dose for vitamin K1 is 1,000 mcg.

The minimum effective dose for short chain menaquinones (MK-4) is 1,500 mcg. Dosages of as much as 45mg (45,000 mcg) have actually been securely used in a superloading dosing protocol.

The minimum effective dosage for longer chain menaquinones (MK-7, MK-8, and MK-9) is in between 90-360mcg. Additional research is required to determine the optimum effective dose for MK-7.

A topical application of vitamin K need to consist of a minimum of 5% phylloquinone.

Vitamin K ought to be supplemented along with fatty acids, even if the vitamin is coming from a plant-based source, so think about taking vitamin K at meal time. Microwaving plant-based sources of vitamin K will increase the absorption rate of the vitamin. [3]

Which foods consist of vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a group of substances divided into two groups– K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone).

Vitamin K1, the most typical kind, is primarily discovered in plant foods, specifically dark leafy greens. K2, on the other hand, is only discovered in animal foods and fermented plant foods, such as natto.

The following 20 foods are good sources of vitamin K.

1. Kale (prepared)– 443% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 531 mcg (443% of the DV).

100 grams: 817 mcg (681% of the DV).

2. Mustard greens (prepared)– 346% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 415 mcg (346% of the DV).

100 grams: 593 mcg (494% of the DV).

3. Swiss chard (raw)– 332% of the DV per serving

1 leaf: 398 mcg (332% of the DV).

100 grams: 830 mcg (692% of the DV).

4. Collard greens (cooked)– 322% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 386 mcg (322% of the DV).

100 grams: 407 mcg (339% of the DV).

5. Natto– 261% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 313 mcg (261% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,103 mcg (920% of the DV).

6. Spinach (raw)– 121% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 145 mcg (121% of the DV).

100 grams: 483 mcg (402% of the DV).

7. Broccoli (cooked)– 92% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 110 mcg (92% of the DV).

100 grams: 141 mcg (118% of the DV).

8. Brussels sprouts (prepared)– 91% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

100 grams: 140 mcg (117% of the DV).

9. Beef liver– 60% of the DV per serving

1 slice: 72 mcg (60% of the DV).

100 grams: 106 mcg (88% of the DV).

10. Pork chops– 49% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

100 grams: 69 mcg (57% of the DV).

11. Chicken– 43% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 51 mcg (43% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

12. Goose liver paste– 40% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

100 grams: 369 mcg (308% of the DV).

13. Green beans (prepared)– 25% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 48 mcg (40% of the DV).

14. Prunes– 24% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 28 mcg (24% of the DV).

100 grams: 60 mcg (50% of the DV).

15. Kiwi– 23% of the DV per serving

1 fruit: 28 mcg (23% of the DV).

100 grams: 40 mcg (34% of the DV).

16. Soybean oil– 21% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 25 mcg (21% of the DV).

100 grams: 184 mcg (153% of the DV).

17. Hard cheeses– 20% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 25 mcg (20% of the DV).

100 grams: 87 mcg (72% of the DV).

18. Avocado– 18% of the DV per serving

Half of a fruit, medium: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

19. Green peas (cooked)– 17% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 21 mcg (17% of the DV).

100 grams: 26 mcg (22% of the DV).

20. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3 more vegetables high in vitamin K

The very best sources of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) are dark, leafy green veggies. In fact, the prefix “phyllo” in this vitamin’s name refers to leaves.

1. Beet greens (prepared)– 290% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 349 mcg (290% of the DV).

100 grams: 484 mcg (403% of the DV).

2. Parsley (fresh)– 137% of the DV per serving

1 sprig: 164 mcg (137% of the DV).

100 grams: 1,640 mcg (1,367% of the DV).

3. Cabbage (cooked)– 68% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 82 mcg (68% of the DV).

100 grams: 109 mcg (91% of the DV).

6 more meat items high in vitamin K

Fatty meats and liver are excellent sources of vitamin K2, though the content differs by the animal’s diet and may vary in between areas or producers. Bear in mind that research study on the vitamin K2 content of animal foods is insufficient.

1. Bacon– 25% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 30 mcg (25% of the DV).

100 grams: 35 mcg (29% of the DV).

2. Ground beef– 7% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 8 mcg (7% of the DV).

100 grams: 9.4 mcg (8% of the DV).

3. Pork liver– 6% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 7.8 mcg (7% of the DV).

4. Duck breast– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.7 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.5 mcg (5% of the DV).

5. Beef kidneys– 4% of the DV per serving

3 ounces: 4.9 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 5.7 mcg (5% of the DV).

6. Chicken liver– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.6 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

9 more dairy foods and eggs high in vitamin K

Dairy foods and eggs are decent sources of vitamin K2.

Like meat, their vitamin content depends upon the animal’s diet, and specific worths may vary by area or manufacturer.

1. Jarlsberg cheese– 19% of the DV per serving

1 slice: 22 mcg (19% of the DV).

100 grams: 80 mcg (66% of the DV).

2. Soft cheeses– 14% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 17 mcg (14% of the DV).

100 grams: 59 mcg (49% of the DV).

3. Edam cheese– 11% of the DV per serving

1 slice: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

100 grams: 49 mcg (41% of the DV).

4. Blue cheese– 9% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 10 mcg (9% of the DV).

100 grams: 36 mcg (30% of the DV).

5. Egg yolk– 5% of the DV per serving

1 large: 5.8 mcg (5% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (29% of the DV).

6. Cheddar– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.7 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 13 mcg (11% of the DV).

7. Entire milk– 3% of the DV per serving

1 cup: 3.2 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 1.3 mcg (1% of the DV).

8. Butter– 2% of the DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 3 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 21 mcg (18% of the DV).

9. Cream– 2% of the DV per serving

2 tablespoons: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV).

100 grams: 9 mcg (8% of the DV).

7 more fruits high in vitamin K

Fruits normally don’t contain as much vitamin K1 as leafy green veggies, but a few supply good amounts.

1. Blackberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 20 mcg (17% of the DV).

2. Blueberries– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 19 mcg (16% of the DV).

3. Pomegranate– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (14% of the DV).

4. Figs (dried)– 6% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 6.6 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

5. Tomatoes (sun-dried)– 4% of the DV per serving

5 pieces: 4.3 mcg (4% of the DV).

100 grams: 43 mcg (36% of the DV).

6. Grapes– 3% of the DV per serving

10 grapes: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 15 mcg (12% of the DV).

7. Red currants– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 3.1 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 11 mcg (9% of the DV).

8 more nuts and beans high in vitamin K

Some vegetables and nuts provide good quantities of vitamin K1 but typically much less than leafy greens.

1. Soybeans (cooked)– 13% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 16 mcg (13% of the DV).

100 grams: 33 mcg (28% of the DV).

2. Grown mung beans (cooked)– 12% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

100 grams: 23 mcg (19% of the DV).

3. Cashews– 8% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 9.7 mcg (8% of the DV).

100 grams: 34 mcg (28% of the DV).

4. Red kidney beans (cooked)– 6% of the DV per serving

1/2 cup: 7.4 mcg (6% of the DV).

100 grams: 8.4 mcg (7% of the DV).

5. Hazelnuts– 3% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 4 mcg (3% of the DV).

100 grams: 14 mcg (12% of the DV).

6. Pine nuts– 1% of the DV per serving

10 nuts: 0.9 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 54 mcg (45% of the DV).

7. Pecans– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 1 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 3.5 mcg (3% of the DV).

8. Walnuts– 1% of the DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.8 mcg (1% of the DV).

100 grams: 2.7 mcg (2% of the DV) [4]

Chemistry

Vitamin K and its derivatives contain a 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone nucleus with a lipophilic side chain (figure 1). The structure resembles warfarin and other coumarin-like anticoagulants, which operate as vitamin K antagonists. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) has a phytyl side chain. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) has numerous forms, each with an isoprenoid side chain, designated MK-4 (or menatetrenone) through MK-13 according to the length of the side chain. The most typical type of menaquinone has 4 residues (MK-4).

Metabolic process

Vitamin K absorption needs intact pancreatic and biliary function and fat absorptive mechanisms. Dietary vitamin K is protein-bound and is liberated by the proteolytic action of pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine. Bile salts then solubilize vitamin K into combined micelles for absorption into enterocytes, where it is incorporated into chylomicrons, thus facilitating absorption into the digestive tract lymphatics and portal blood circulation for transportation to the liver. In the liver it is repackaged into really low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). It distributes in small quantities bound to lipoprotein.

Vitamin K: 5 scientifically proven advantages

Promotes blood clot

You most likely think about blood cells or platelets when clotting is gone over, but vitamin K is in fact essential to this process that keeps you from extreme bleeding at even the smallest of injuries.

K plays a key role in the development of pro-blood clotting proteins referred to as elements II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, and anticoagulant (anti-blood clotting) proteins referred to as proteins C, S, and Z.

However even though this process is important, some people clot too easily. Some blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (trademark name Coumadin), work by annoying the action of vitamin K.

Because of this, it is exceptionally crucial that people on warfarin keep their vitamin K levels constant. That implies seeing their vitamin K consumption throughout the time they’re taking warfarin and getting routine blood checks done.

Prevent osteoporosis and support strong bones

However wait, isn’t that calcium and vitamin D? That’s the Destiny’s Child scenario at play. There are really vitamin K-dependent proteins required for appropriate bone health.

This fat-soluble vitamin has to exist for an enzyme called gamma-glutamyl carboxylase to make the protein osteocalcin work, through a process called carboxylation, which is needed for bone development (Beulens, 2013).

Despite its crucial function in controling bone metabolism, it’s uncertain whether vitamin K can decrease the threat of bone fractures. Previous research has actually recommended that getting adequate vitamin K can assist prevent bone loss and reduce hip fractures in older males and females (Hamidi, 2013).

Bone health

And research study done particularly on postmenopausal females with osteoporosis has actually shown prospective take advantage of K2 supplements. However a meta-analysis found that vitamin K may aid with bone mineral density in some physical areas, however not others (Fang, 2011; Iwamoto, 2014).

More work requirements to be done to clarify the relationship and see if supplementing with the Ks might assist avoid fractures, especially those at the hip.

Might improve memory in older adults

Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) that need the intake of vitamin K to work correctly don’t simply affect your bone modeling, though.

The VKDPs not associated with bone growth or blood clot are included with the metabolic process of sphingolipids, a class of lipids typically discovered in brain cell membranes that are involved with cellular events.

Modifications in sphingolipid metabolic process have been related to not only age-related cognitive decline however likewise neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s (Ferland, 2012).

Current research suggests that vitamin K antagonists, which are used as anticoagulants, might have an unfavorable impact on visual memory, spoken fluency, and brain volume. But it does not appear to go in simply one direction (Alisi, 2019).

Higher vitamin K levels, specifically phylloquinone (K1), are connected with improved verbal episodic memory, though no distinction was observed with non-verbal episodic memory (Presse, 2013).

Keep high blood pressure down

Getting an adequate intake of vitamin K might likewise be essential to your heart health because it might have the ability to help avoid hypertension (abnormally hypertension) and lower your risk of cardiovascular disease (more on that in a second).

Low vitamin D and K status have actually been linked to hypertension with increases in both systolic and diastolic high blood pressure. Like D, vitamin K engages carefully with calcium in your body, in this case, assisting to manage the levels of this mineral in your blood (Ballegooijen, 2017).

Vascular calcification– a procedure in which minerals like calcium are transferred in blood vessels, blocking blood circulation over time– is common as we age. But getting the appropriate amount of vitamin K might assist avoid mineralization, warding off this procedure and keeping high blood pressure lower.

Lower risk of heart problem

Your threat of a cardiovascular occasion is closely connected with the calcification of your capillary.

In fact, one meta-analysis that took a look at 30 research studies found a 300– 400 percent boost in your danger of cardiovascular events with the existence of calcification on any arterial wall (Rennenberg, 2009).

However greater blood levels of the K1 kind of vitamin K are associated with a lower risk of heart problem. [6]

What is Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding?

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding or VKDB, occurs when children can not stop bleeding since their blood does not have sufficient Vitamin K to form a clot. The bleeding can take place anywhere on the within or outside of the body. When the bleeding happens inside the body, it can be challenging to see. Typically, an infant with VKDB will bleed into his or her intestines, or into the brain, which can result in brain damage and even death. Infants who do not receive the vitamin K shot at birth can establish VKDB at any time approximately 6 months of age. There are three types of VKDB, based on the age of the child when the bleeding problems start: early, classical and late. More details about these types is consisted of listed below.

Why are infants most likely to have vitamin K shortage and to get VKDB?

All babies, regardless of sex, race, or ethnic background, are at greater danger for VKDB up until they begin eating regular foods, normally at age 4-6 months, and up until the regular intestinal bacteria start making vitamin K. This is due to the fact that:

At birth, babies have really little vitamin K saved in their bodies due to the fact that just percentages pass to them through the placenta from their moms.

The excellent germs that produce vitamin K are not yet present in the newborn’s intestines.

Breast milk consists of low amounts of vitamin K, so specifically breastfed infants don’t get enough vitamin K from the breast milk, alone.

What can I do to prevent my baby from getting vitamin K deficiency and VKDB?

The bright side is that VKDB is quickly avoided by giving infants a vitamin K shot into a muscle in the thigh. One shot offered just after birth will safeguard your baby from VKDB. In order to provide for immediate bonding and contact between the newborn and mom, giving the vitamin K shot can be postponed up to 6 hours after birth.

Is the Vitamin K shot safe?

Yes. Many research studies have actually shown that vitamin K is safe when offered to babies. To find out more about the safety of the vitamin K shot, please see our frequently asked question’s.

What might trigger children to be deficient in vitamin K and have bleeding problems?

Some things can put babies at a greater danger for establishing VKDB. Babies at greater danger include:

  1. Babies who do not receive a vitamin K shot at birth. The risk is even greater if they are exclusively breastfed.
  2. Infants whose moms used certain medications, like isoniazid or medications to deal with seizures. These drugs hinder how the body utilizes vitamin K.
  3. Infants who have liver illness; typically they can not utilize the vitamin K their body stores.
  4. Children who have diarrhea, celiac disease, or cystic fibrosis often have difficulty taking in vitamins, consisting of vitamin K, from the foods they eat.

How frequently are infants impacted with vitamin K deficiency bleeding?

Since babies can be impacted till they are 6 months old, healthcare providers divide VKDB into three types; early, classical and late. The chart below assists describe these three different types.

Early and classical VKDB are more common, occurring in 1 in 60 to 1 in 250 newborns, although the danger is much higher for early VKDB amongst those babies whose mothers used particular medications during the pregnancy.

Late VKDB is rarer, happening in 1 in 14,000 to 1 in 25,000 babies (1– 3).

Infants who do not get a vitamin K shot at birth are 81 times most likely to establish late VKDB than infants who do receive a vitamin K shot at birth. [7]

Causes of Vitamin K Shortage

Vitamin K deficiency can arise from the following:

  • Absence of vitamin K in the diet
  • A really low fat diet plan due to the fact that vitamin K is finest absorbed when consumed with some fat
  • Disorders that hinder fat absorption and that therefore lower the absorption of vitamin K (such as obstruction of the bile ducts or cystic fibrosis)
  • Certain drugs, including antiseizure drugs, and some antibiotics
  • Usage of large quantities of mineral oil, which may lower the absorption of vitamin K

Newborns are prone to vitamin K deficiency because of the following:

  • Just percentages of vitamin K pass from the mom to the fetus during pregnancy.
  • Throughout the very first couple of days after birth, the newborn’s intestine has not yet acquired germs to produce vitamin K.

Signs of Vitamin K Deficiency

The primary sign of vitamin K shortage is bleeding (hemorrhage)– into the skin (triggering contusions), from the nose, from a wound, in the stomach, or in the intestine. In some cases bleeding in the stomach triggers throwing up with blood. Blood may be seen in the urine or stool, or stools might be tarry black.

In babies, deadly bleeding within or around the brain may take place.

Having a liver disorder increases the danger of bleeding, due to the fact that clotting factors are made in the liver.

Vitamin K deficiency may likewise deteriorate bones.

Diagnosis of Vitamin K Shortage

Blood tests

Medical professionals think vitamin K deficiency when unusual bleeding takes place in people with conditions that put them at risk.

Blood tests to determine how quickly embolism are done to assist verify the diagnosis. Knowing just how much vitamin K individuals consume helps doctors analyze results of these blood tests. Often the vitamin K level in the blood is measured.

Treatment of Vitamin K Deficiency

A vitamin K injection in the muscle is suggested for all babies to decrease the danger of bleeding within the brain after delivery.

If vitamin K shortage is diagnosed, vitamin K is usually taken by mouth or provided by injection under the skin. If a drug is the cause, the dose of the drug is changed or extra vitamin K is given. [8]

Adverse effects

In addition to its needed impacts, a medication might trigger some unwanted results. Although not all of these adverse effects might happen, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Contact your physician as soon as possible if any of the following negative effects take place:.

Less typical

  • Decreased hunger
  • decreased motion or activity
  • trouble in breathing
  • enlarged liver
  • general body swelling
  • irritability
  • muscle stiffness
  • paleness
  • yellow eyes or skin

Rare

  • Problem in swallowing
  • quickly or irregular breathing
  • lightheadedness or fainting
  • shortness of breath
  • skin rash, hives and/or itching
  • swelling of eyelids, face, or lips
  • tightness in chest
  • troubled breathing and/or wheezing

Unusual

  • Blue color or flushing or soreness of skin
  • dizziness
  • fast and/or weak heart beat
  • increased sweating
  • low blood pressure (short-term)

Some adverse effects may take place that typically do not need medical attention. These side effects might disappear during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care expert might be able to tell you about methods to prevent or lower some of these negative effects. Check with your healthcare professional if any of the following adverse effects continue or are irritating or if you have any concerns about them:.

  • Less common
  • Flushing of face
  • redness, pain, or swelling at location of injection
  • skin lesions at location of injection (rare)
  • uncommon taste

Opposite effects not noted might likewise occur in some clients. If you see any other effects, check with your healthcare expert. [9]

Possible Interactions

If you are presently being treated with any of the following medications, you must not take vitamin K without first talking to your healthcare provider.

Prescription antibiotics– Antibiotics, specifically those known as cephalosporins, lower the absorption of vitamin K in the body. Utilizing them for more than 10 days might reduce levels of vitamin K since these drugs kill not only hazardous bacteria however likewise the germs that make vitamin K. Individuals who already have low levels of vitamin K, such as those who are malnourished, elderly, or taking warfarin (Coumadin) are at greater threat. Cephalosporins include:.

  • Cefamandole (Mandol)
  • Cefoperazone (Cefobid)
  • Cefmetazole (Zefazone)
  • Cefotetan (Cefotan)

Phenytoin (Dilantin)– Phenytoin hinders the body’s ability to utilize vitamin K. Taking anticonvulsants (such as phenytoin) during pregnancy or while breastfeeding may reduce vitamin K in newborns.

Warfarin (Coumadin)– Vitamin K blocks the effects of the blood-thinning medication warfarin, so that it does not work. You ought to not take vitamin K, or eat foods containing high quantities of vitamin K, while you are taking warfarin. Consult with your doctor for particular dietary guidelines.

Orlistat (Xenical, Alli) and Olestra– Orlistat, a medication utilized for weight reduction, and olestra, a substance contributed to some foods, lowers the amount of fat you body can absorb. Due to the fact that vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, these medications might also reduce levels of vitamin K. The Food and Drug Administration now requires that vitamin K and other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) be contributed to food products containing olestra. Doctors who prescribe orlistat typically advise taking a multivitamin with these vitamins. If you must not be taking vitamin K, then you need to avoid foods which contain olestra.

Cholesterol-lowering medications– Bile acid sequestrants, used to minimize cholesterol, lower how much fat your body soaks up and may also minimize absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. If you take among these drugs, your medical professional may suggest a vitamin K supplement:.

  • Cholestyramine (Questran)
  • Colestipol (Colestid)
  • Colsevelam (Welchol) [10]

Threats

No tolerable upper limit has been determined for vitamin K. Toxicity is rare and not likely to result from eating foods containing vitamin K.

Nevertheless, taking any kind of supplement can result in toxicity.

Vitamin K can connect with several typical medications, consisting of blood-thinners, anticonvulsants, antibiotics, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and weight-loss drugs.

Blood thinners, such as warfarin are used to prevent hazardous embolism that might obstruct blood flow to the brain or heart. They work by decreasing or postponing vitamin K’s clotting ability. Suddenly increasing or reducing vitamin K consumption can hinder the effects of these drugs. Keeping vitamin K intake consistent from day to day can avoid these problems.

Anticonvulsants, if taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, can increase the danger of vitamin K deficiency in a fetus or a newborn. Examples of anticonvulsants are phenytoin and dilantin.

Cholesterol-lowering medications interfere with fat absorption. Dietary fat is necessary for soaking up vitamin K, so individuals who are taking this medication might have a greater risk of shortage.

Anyone who is taking any of these medications need to speak to their doctor about their vitamin K intake.

The best way to ensure the body has enough nutrients is to consume a balanced diet plan, with a lot of vegetables and fruit. Supplements need to only be utilized in case of deficiency, and after that, under medical supervision. [11]

Conclusion

Vitamins are substances that your body requires to grow and establish typically. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It likewise makes proteins for blood clot. If you don’t have enough vitamin K, you may bleed excessive.

Newborns have extremely little vitamin K. They normally get a shot of vitamin K right after they are born.

If you take blood thinners, you require to be mindful about how much vitamin K you get. You likewise require to be mindful about taking vitamin E supplements. vitamin E can disrupt how vitamin K operates in your body. Ask your health care provider for suggestions about these vitamins.

There are different types of vitamin K. Most people get vitamin K from plants such as green veggies, and dark berries. Bacteria in your intestinal tracts likewise produce percentages of another kind of vitamin K. [12]

References

  1. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k/
  2. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/supplement-guide-vitamin-k
  3. https://examine.com/supplements/vitamin-k/#how-to-take
  4. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods-high-in-vitamin-k
  5. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-vitamin-k
  6. https://ro.co/health-guide/vitamin-k-benefits/
  7. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/vitamink/facts.html
  8. https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/disorders-of-nutrition/vitamins/vitamin-k-deficiency
  9. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/vitamin-k-class-oral-route-parenteral-route/side-effects/drg-20069592
  10. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/vitamin-k
  11. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219867#risks
  12. https://medlineplus.gov/vitamink.html
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